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P50X

ContentCommand StationsUhlenbrock

Introduction to the P50X protocol
(document version 0.96 - 09/00) - by St.Ch-B.
Uhlenbrock Elektronik GmbH
=============================================


Note:
Maerklin, Maerklin Digital, Maerklin Digital=, Lenz, Lenz Digital Plus, Roco,
Digital is Cool, LokMaus, NMRA, Trix, Selectrix, Selectrix 2000, Fleischmann,
Fleischmann FMZ, ZIMO, Wangrow, North Coast Engineering, Digitrax, LocoNet,
Motorola, Modeltreno Digital Line, Uhlenbrock Digital etc. are copyrighted
and registered trade marks.


First of all, let us define some terms we regulary use:

P50	  standard Maerklin Interface protocol : "P" for Protocol and "50"
	  from 6050, the catalogue number of the original Maerklin Interface
P50X	  the eXtended P50 protocol
P50Xa	  the ASCII 'part' of the P50X (ASCII mode commands)
P50Xb	  the binary 'part' of the P50X (binary mode commands)
XDEV	  eXtended serial DEVice (a device which supports the P50X)
Xk83	  eXtended k83 with 256 addresses capability
PT	  Programming Track
I2C	  The communication bus used by Maerklin between the different
	  "white boxes" (also known as IIC)
ISA-bus	  The most common communication bus on a PC
X-Bus	  The communication bus used by Lenz devices (LZ100, LH100, ...)
X-B lite  Communication bus used for the Lokmaus
Lok	  Locomotive
FL	  Function Light ("0"=Off, "1"=On. Default="0") - also known as "F0"
F1,F2,..  Extended functions ("0"=Off, "1"=On. Default = "0")
Dir	  Locomotive direction ("1"=forward, "0"=reverse. Default = "1")
Speed	  Locomotive speed
ICUM	  ISA-bus Central Unit Modeltreno, first existing device featuring
	  the P50X protocol
SO	  Special Option
LSO	  Lok Special Option
BABI	  Break and Automatic Baud-rate Identification
Turnout	  the word 'turnout' is used instead of 'accessory' (therefore a
	  'turnout' can also be a signal, etc...)
Trnt	  turnout
Turnout address
	  the address of a **single** device (accessory, turnout, signal,
	  etc...) controlled through an accessory decoder. To convert from
	  decoder address to turnout address (assuming that each decoder
	  controls 4 devices), the following formula applies:
	  Decoder address = ((Turnout address - 1) / 4) + 1
	  ["/" = integer divide]
Color	  Switching direction of a turnout ("1" or "G" or "g" = green or
	  closed, "0" or "R" or "r" = red or thrown)
Status	  on (1) or off (0) status of the output of a decoder controlling
	  a turnout
TC	  Fleischmann TWIN-CENTER
IB	  Uhlenbrock/Modeltreno Intellibox



As far as the RS-232 serial interface is concerned, in general the "eXtended
serial Device" (XDEV) supports communication speeds of 300, 600, 1200, 2400
(default), 4800, 7200, 9600, 14400, 19200, 28800, 38400, 57600 and 115200 bps.
However, as is the case of the Intellibox, not every communication speed in
this list must be supported. The minimum is: support just 2400 bps.
Probably, bit rates higher than approx 9600/14400 bps hardly make any
sense - apart from a super fast (but "dumb": see events method for a better
solution) reading of s88 status info.

The Intellibox supports (check also the P50Xa 'B' cmd described in
P50XAGEN.TXT): 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 and ("unofficially") 38400 bps.

The P50X protocol supports also a different "serial" device, i.e. the ISA-bus
interface. This would be the case of, e.g., the Modeltreno ICUM.

Let us start with the description of the communication protocol between the
XDEV and an external device (possibly, a PC).

As already said, the XDEV supports the official Maerklin Interface protocol
(what we call P50). The support must be rather "high-fidelity", since it
should also implement the non-documented command codes: it seems that the
CPU in the Interface does not check for each and every bit.
For example, the standard 20h command ("cmd", for short) - which turns off
a turnout is also understood by sending 24h or 28h, etc...
In a word: a lot of commands have "mirrors".

In order to extend the P50, it is decided to use a single "lead-in"
character: 58h (ASCII "X") or 78h (ASCII "x").
These values are not currently defined in the Maerklin Interface protocol
(the P50). However, one can change this lead-in character to any other value
(within a limited range) using the ASCII command PX.

After this first byte, subsequent byte(s) specify the actual P50X cmd.
The first byte of these (i.e., the first byte after the initial "x" or "X")
also tells whether this is a P50X binary (P50Xb) or P50X ASCII (P50Xa) cmd.
While the former is more useful when controlling the XDEV through a program,
the latter is more useful for a user who wants to type commands at the
keyboard.
The idea is: if the value of this byte is greater or equal $80 then the cmd
is assumed to be in P50X binary format (P50Xb). If, on the contrary, it is
less or equal than $7F, then it is in ASCII format.
Not every P50Xb cmd has a correspondent P50Xa cmd and vice-versa.

As an added convenience to the user, the "P50X only" mode can be forced by a
special P50X cmd. This cmd is:
"xZzA1"	"P50X only" mode On (turns off the P50 - check also P50X_GEN.TXT)
"ZzA0"	"P50X only" mode Off (turns on the P50)

After issuing "xZzA1" the leading "x" MUST be dropped.
In particular, the "ZzA0" ("Off") cmd does NOT have to be leaded by an "x".
This is so, since when the "P50X only" mode is On, no P50 cmds are (directly)
executable.
Therefore, the "x" is not needed (and therefore not allowed).
It is convenient to take advantage of the "xZzA1" command  (if the
"P50X only" mode is off) if you use a standard terminal program to talk
to the XDEV through the serial line: thereafter you won’t have to remember
to type an "x" or "X" at the beginning of each ASCII P50X command.

Dropping the leading "x" would also be convenient for a program which mostly
uses P50X commands. (Note: P50 commands are still executable even if in
"P50X only" mode. Please check P50X_GEN.TXT).



General Syntax of P50Xa cmds
----------------------------

As a rule, P50Xa cmds are NOT case sensitive: upper and lower case don't
matter. The "xZzA1" and "ZzA0" cmds are the only exceptions to this rule.

The CR (Carriage Return) character must be sent as the last character of
each P50Xa cmd. A trailing Line Feed ($0A) is prohibited.

Most P50Xa cmds accept parameters. Some of them are optional (and indicated
between square brackets in the following).
Spaces **before** parameters are skipped.

You can directly preceed a parameter with the character "$", should you want
to specify it in hexadecimal notation (e.g. $F3), or "%" in the case of a
binary value (e.g. %11000110), starting from the most significant bit.
Leading 0’s are skipped in every format (dec, hex or bin).
Internally, parameters are evaluated (converted from ASCII to binary) as
16 bit unsigned quantities. However, many commands only allow for a limited
range of legal values (e.g. 0..255).

Some commands accept a variable number of parameters.
P50X commands are usually composed of 2 characters (plus leading "x"
or "X"), however, there are a few exceptions.
You can use one or more spaces or a comma as separator between parameters.
Using a comma, you can add spaces only **after** the comma.

Example: let's immagine that the maximum number of parameters of an
hypothetical command "XX" is 3. You can type the command as "XX", "xX",
"Xx" o "xx" and, with its parameters, as:

xx parameter1, parameter2, parameter3
xx parameter1,     parameter2,parameter3
xx parameter1,parameter2,parameter3
xxparameter1, parameter2, parameter3
xxparameter1,parameter2,parameter3
xx parameter1 parameter2 parameter3
xxparameter1     parameter2 parameter3


Also, some cmds "understand" that you actually want to get some info, not
to send a "real" cmd. This happens if you limit your input to no parameters
or to the very first (mandatory) parameter.
For example, in order to turn on the lights, without changing the speed,
of Lok #1, you would issue command: "L 1,,1" (or also, for example,
"L1, ,  1": spaces before parameters are skipped).
If, on the contrary, you only wanted to check the status of that Lok, you
would issue the command: "L 1" (or "L1", etc...).

The maximum length of P50Xa commands is 62 characters (excluding the
final CR). Only one command per line is allowed. In other words, each and
every ASCII command must be followed by CR (Carriage Return), or hex 0Dh
(decimal 13).
N.B. No LF (Line Feed, hex 0Ah) character should be added after CR!!

Optional parameters are indicated in square brackets. For example:
YY	Parameter1[, Parameter2]

The reply of the XDEV to a P50Xa command is always terminated by the
character "]" (prompt of the P50Xa cmds in normal mode (the ICUM also
features a "PT mode": here the prompt would be "*")).
A program can use this feature in order to understand when the last
character of the XDEV reply to the P50Xa cmd has been received.  Moreover
it is guaranteed that only one "]" character shall be sent by the XDEV as
part of the reply: the very last character!

If at least one character of a P50X ASCII cmd has been sent through the
RS-232 channel to the XDEV, then it is possible to use the standard BS
(backspace, 08h) character in order to "erase" the previous character of
this cmd. This does NOT hold true for P50X binary commands!
Note: the XDEV does NOT send the usual "space + BS" in reply to this
BS character (this sequence is usually sent to erase from the terminal
screen the "backspaced-over" character). If desired, this "erasure" must
be performed locally (most terminal programs are configured that way by
default).



A note on P50 Lok cmds
----------------------

P50 Lok commands (i.e. "Speed and FL" and "Functions" commands) are expanded
by the XDEV as far as the allowed address range is concerned.
In fact, the second byte of these commands is not restricted to the range
1..80 (as would be the case for a 6050/1 connected to a Motorola format
Central Unit).

The XDEV address range for P50 Lok commands is: 0..255.

Of course, depending on the particular protocol the Lok has been configured
for, not every address is a legal address.
For example, Selectrix "only" supports addresses: 0..111.
If the address is not "legal", then the XDEV shall discard that P50 cmd.



Baud rate & protocol identification
-----------------------------------

The XDev, through the 'break' feature and the XNOP P50Xb cmd (0C4h),
supports automatic baud rate identification by the PC ("BABI" = Break and
Automatic Baud-rate Identification). Please read the next section for
more details on how a Break is handled by the Intellibox.
The BABI procedure is also esemplified in the demonstration programs.
Automatic identification of the active protocol (P50, P50X or both) is also
possible. Please check the IBE.BAS demonstration program for details.



RS-232 'break'
--------------

Devices supporting the P50X protocol should also support the 'break' state
of the RS-232 protocol - as we are about to explain.

A PC can send a 'break' to the XDev when it would like the XDev to completely
clear it's RS-232 input buffer, thus making sure that the next character -
the one sent by the PC after the break - shall be interpreted as the very
first byte of a new command.
In the Intellibox case, a simple (short) break, as defined by the RS-232
standard, is not enough. A longer sequence must be used:

- 'no transmission' pause (about 200 ms or more);
- actual RS-232 break lasting about 1 second or more (i.e. the PC tx line is
  held at +12V for about 1 second or more);
- a second 'no transmission' pause (about 600 ms or more).

It is **very** important that NOTHING is transmitted to the Intellibox
during these 'no transmission' pauses. Particulary in the case of the 1st
pause, an eventual transmit buffer used by the PC program should be taken
into account!
(That is: wait for the specified amount of time **after** this tx buffer has
become empty - or has been explicitly emptied by the PC program.)

Please consider also the fact that, quite "correctly", some programming
environments do not "send a break" if the corresponding serial port hasn't
been opened first.


Conversely, upon being resetted by the user or by a PC command (check P50Xa
'@' and '@@' cmds), the XDev shall send an RS-232 break to the PC.
(No break is sent in case of an Intellibox power-on reset.)
It is guaranteed that the break shall last about 30 ms - what is more than
enough, even at 2400 bps, for correct break identification on the PC side.


Depending on Special Option #26, a break (from the XDev) may also 'reset'
the Intellibox baud rate to 2400 bps. This happens if SO #26 is set (this
would be the default factory setting).
However, even after a Break, the 'original' baud rate (i.e. the default
baud rate selected by the user through the Intellibox menus) can be
restored by reading the Special Option (SO) #1 and then using the
P50Xa 'B' cmd.
SO #1 would have a value from 0 (2400 bps) to 4 (38400 bps).
The Intellibox default factory setting is 2400 bps (SO #1 = 0).

A PC break also re-enables both the P50 and the P50X protocols (should
they have been disabled) and sets 'X' (or 'x') as the P50X leading
character.

(The P50 protocol can be disabled by the 'ZzA1' cmd, while the P50X
protocol can be disabled through the 'PX0' cmd.
While the P50 cmd can be re-enabled by cmd ('ZzA0'), there is no way, other
then a PC break or a manual reset (should the Intellibox not have been
configured for "6050 only"), to re-enable the P50X protocol by the PC.)



CTS handling
------------

The Intellibox shall deactivate the CTS line as soon as the amount of
available space in its input buffer has dropped below 5 characters.
Therefore, in the case of a PC program reacting very slowly to CTS being
set "off", the Intellibox can still correctly receive (without an 'overrun'
error), up to 4 more characters.
Only when more than 4 characters shall once again be free in the input
buffer shall the Intellibox activate the CTS line once more.

(Please notice: our tests show that not every programming environment
correctly supports the CTS line!)

The Intellibox input buffer size is 16 bytes plus one P50 or P50X command.
Of these 16 bytes, 8 are 'fast' (immediately available), while 8 more are
'slow'. For CTS handling the amount of 'fast' bytes still free is the
quantity which is taken into account.

It may happen, if using 'older' software (e.g. software written for a 6050),
that this input buffer may produce unexpected side effects.
For example: you can queue relatively fast up to 13 P50 locomotive commands
in the Intellibox input buffers (or even more turnout commands). However,
a P50 s88 read cmd sent after these would be processed only after the Lok
commands have been processed: depending on several circumstances, this can
take quite some time (seconds like).
It may just happen that the 'older' software won't stand this 'delay'.

This is one more reason, along with proper CTS handling on the PC side,
why most P50X commands send a reply. In fact, speaking about P50Xb commands,
since no such command is longer than a few bytes and since almost every
P50Xb command sends a reply to the PC, then, if the PC decides to wait
for this reply before sending a further command, then, even if the PC does
not correctly react to CTS being set 'off', no problem (overrun) is possible.

Please consider that P50Xb commands, including Lok and Turnout commands,
usually reply within a few milliseconds - possibly with a "buffer full"
error.
While the exact reaction time is command-dependent, a maximum reply
time of about 50 ms can be estimated (about 100 ms for an XPwrOn cmd),
with 20-30 ms being a 'typical' figure.
Of course, the selected baud rate has an effect on total command 'cycle'
time!



Command processing order
------------------------

While there is no cmd-to-reply identification system (i.e., it is not
possible, by looking only at the reply to a cmd to find out exactly to
what cmd that reply refers to), it is however guaranteed that the XDEV
shall send to the PC replies in the same order as the received commands.
Therefore, if you send n commands and only later on check the n replies to
those commands, you shall still be able to find out exactly which command
was successfully executed and which one may not have been.



Fleischmann TWIN-CENTER
-----------------------

The TC supports, besides P50 and P50X also an emulation (with extensions
and restrictions) of the protocol used by a 6800 FMZ command station - what
we call 'PTC' (Protocol TC).
This protocol is described in a separate document: PTC.TXT.

Intellibox: general purpose P50Xa commands
(document version 0.851 - 09/2003) - by St.Ch-B.
Uhlenbrock Elektronik GmbH
================================================


*** H
Help. May also be sent in a short form: '?'.



*** HL
Help about the syntax of the 'L' Lok cmd.



*** HT
Help about the syntax of the 'T' Turnout cmd.



*** HF
Help about the syntax of the 'F' Function cmd.



*** Stop
Power Off. May also be sent in a short form: '.'



*** Go
Power On. May also be sent in a short form: '!'
(All power on cmds, including the manual ones, clear an eventually
active Halt mode.)
Should there still be an error condition (e.g. 'overheating'),
then the Intellibox shall reply with:
'Pwr On not possible!'
In this case, the result of the 'Y' cmd should tell you more.



*** Halt
Activates Halt mode: all Loks are forced in Stop (or Em. Stop).
No Speed commands are executed, however other Lok commands *are*
executed (e.g. direction change, light or function status change).
Turnouts can be controlled.



*** Y
Shows the current IB status: Power On/Off, Halt mode On/Off, presence
of an external I2C Control Unit, Voltage Regulation status, etc...
This corresponds to the XStatus P50Xb cmd.



*** V
Report Intellibox/TWIN-CENTER software version number and serial number.
(Also check the XVer P50Xb cmd in P50X_GEN.TXT for more details.)



*** MT {[TMin], [TMax]}
TMin	minimum turnout activation time (0..255)
TMax	maximum turnout activation time (0..255)
Specifying 0 as a value disables the corresponding timer.
Both TMin and TMax are specified in 50 ms units.
The IB default is:
TMin	2 = 100 ms (Special Option #13)
TMin	100 = 5 seconds (Special Option #14)
accuracy is about +/-25 ms.
This command allows to override, up to the next IB reset, the values
specified by SO #13 and #14.



*** SR {[Flag]}
Flag	0 or 1
This allows reading or setting the s88 'auto-reset' feature.
The command 'SR0' corresponds to the P50 command 080h.
The command 'SR1' corresponds to the P50 command 0C0h.



*** SS {s88}
s88	s88 module number to be read (1..31)



*** SE {s88h}
s88h	sets the highest s88 module 'half number' to be
	automatically read by the IB
	*OR*
	disable automatic reading (s88h = 0)
Allowed range is: 0..62

For example, in order to have the IB automatically read only
the very first s88 module, the following command should be
used: 'SE 2'.
The IB default (per Special Option #8) is: s88h = 16, which implies
reading automatically the first 8 s88 modules (16 'half modules').
If a P50 cmd for reading the s88 modules requires more than what
is currently automatically read by the IB, then the IB automatically
raises this number. This does NOT apply to event-style reading!
You can also specify 0 as a value for s88h. In this case, the IB
shall cease reading s88 modules automatically and only read them
when an explicit P50 or P50Xa cmd shall be sent.

This command allows to override, up to the next IB reset, the value
specified by SO #8.

N.B. No sensor event can be generated for s88 modules which are not
being read automatically by the IB. Therefore, it is quite important
to let the IB know, either manually through the IB menus or through
this 'SE' cmd (or X88PSet), how many s88 modules are actually connected.
LocoNet sensors, on the contrary, would be active even if s88 automatic
reading has been disabled.



*** SX {[Ts88h], [Cs88h]}
Ts88h	source for s88 timers (0..62)
Cs88h	source for s88 counters (0..62)
Both parameters are specified in terms of 's88 half modules'.
The IB default is Ts88h = 1 (Special Option #23) and Cs88h = 1
(Special Option #24).
This would imply that s88 Timer #1 keeps track of the total time
the input #1 of the 1st s88 module has been 'active' (s88 input
'closed' or 'on').
s88 Timer #2 would be associated with the 2nd input of the same
s88 module.

For example, specifying 2 for Cs88h would make the 1st s88 Counter
count the number of off/on cycles (contact open/closed) of input
#9 of the first s88 module.

Provided the corresponding s88 input is 'on' (closed), each s88 Timer
is incremented approximately every 200 ms.
The (time) resolution of the Counters depends on the number of s88
modules which are being automatically read by the IB: the lower this
number, the higher the resolution of s88 counters (i.e. they would be
able to keep track also of very fast on/off cycles).
A reasonable estimate, while automatically reading the first 8 s88
modules, would be about 50 ms resolution for the Counters - or better.

N.B. s88 Timers and Counters are NOT updated if automatic s88
     reading is disabled (check 'SE' cmd).

This command allows to override, up to the next IB reset, the values
specified by SO #23 and #24.

Specifying 0 for Ts88h disables s88 timer updates. The corresponding
is true for s88 counters if setting Cs88h to 0.



*** ST {s88Tim, [Reset]}
s88Tim	s88 Timer (1..8)
Reset	tells whether to reset (1) or not (0) the s88 Timer which
	is being read.
N.B. if Reset is not specified, then a reset is performed!
Each Timer is 16 bit. If the maximum Timer value is reached, there
is no wrap around: the Timer is no more incremented.



*** SC {s88Cnt, [Reset]}
s88Cnt	s88 Counter (1..8)
Reset	tells whether to reset (1) or not (0) the s88 Counter which
	is being read.
N.B. if Reset is not specified, then a reset is performed!
Each Counter is 16 bit. If the maximum Counter value is reached, there
is no wrap around: the Counter is no more incremented.



*** RT [Ctime]
Ctime	CTS 'off' time in case of non-PC requested Power Off
	(e.g. manual Power Off, shorts, etc...)
	This value is to be interpreted in units of 50 ms.
	The IB default is: Ctime = 254 (i.e. about 13 seconds).

In practice: when a non-PC Power Off occurs, the IB, in order to
find out what to do with the CTS line, checks the 'Ctime' value:

if CTime = 0, then the CTS line is permanently disabled: only a
	manual Power On (e.g. pressing the 'Go' key on the IB)
	would reactivate the CTS line. This is what would happen
	in case of a 6050 (actually: after a Power Off, a 6050
	accepts at least one more cmd. If the 6050 is connected
	to a 6021, then only a turnout cmd 'blocks' the 6050).

if CTime = 255, then the CTS line is not disabled at all (excluding,
	of course, IB RS-232 input buffer status).

For other values, the CTS line is disabled for the specified amount
of 50 ms units. The idea is to let the PC implicitly find out, through
a timeout detected by the PC RS-232 driver on the CTS line, that a Power
Off has occurred. Then, after a short while, the CTS line would be
automatically re-enabled by the IB, thus allowing further cmds from the PC.

If you are using events, then it would be probably wise to either set
CTime = 255, or to set it to a very low value (e.g. 10).

This command allows to override, up to the next IB reset, the value
specified by SO #6.



*** ZzA {parm}
Enables (parm = 0) or disables (parm = 1) the P50 protocol.
When the P50 protocol is disabled, the leading character of the P50X
commands MUST NOT be sent (this is, by default, the "X" or "x" character).



*** PX [char]
char	the ASCII code of the P50X char to be used starting from the
	next P50X cmd. Allowed range: 0 or 50h..5Fh
As usual, not specifying any 'char' allows you to read the current value.
If 0 is specified (as 'char' value), then the P50X protocol shall be
disabled. Re-enable is possible only by PC break or Intellibox reset.
The latter would only work provided that the Intellibox has been configured
that way using its menus (i.e. configured for 'P50X enabled').



*** @
Have the IB perform a reset (warmstart).
Turnout and Lok status is preserved (Lok Speed is set to 0 - however, this
depends on the way the IB has been configured).
N.B. starting from SPU version 1.500, this command must be enabled through
     SO #663: that SO must have the value 1.



*** @@
Have the IB perform a reset (coldstart).
Turnout and Lok status is NOT preserved: it is reset according to the last
saved status for Loks and to the last saved turnout status for turnouts.
All eventual turnout 'color' changes which may have occurred since the last
power on shall be lost.
N.B. starting from SPU version 1.500, this command must be enabled through
     SO #663: that SO must have the value 1.



*** B [baud_rate]
The officially supported IB baud rates are: 2400, 4800, 9600 and 19200 bps.
38400 bps should also work - even if we DO NOT officially support this
RS-232 speed.
The XNOP P50Xb cmd can be used in order to automatically detect both
the current baud rate and the currently active protocol(s): either P50 only,
P50X only, or "mixed" (P50 and P50X).



*** CT [flag]
In case of some "terminal" programs, in order not to have the Intellibox
reply to a P50Xa cmd overwrite the P50Xa cmd itself, a leading CR (Carriage
Return) must be sent by the Intellibox, before sending the answer to a P50Xa
cmd. This would be enabled by specifying "1" as the value of the flag
parameter of the CT cmd.
The startup default is "0", which would imply NOT adding any leading CR.



*** ID [flags]
Allows overriding up to the next IB reset the value of SO #907.
Only bit #0 (for Motorola idle) and bit #2 (for DCC idle) are to be
used. NO OTHER BIT SHOULD BE SET!
The IB shall send, provided that no other signal must be sent, the
idle signal specified by the flag parameter.
The IB default is to send both idle signals: flags = 5.
(For Germany, the dafault is: flags = 1, i.e. send only Motorola idle).



*** NR [flag]
Allows disabling the refresh cycle (if flag = 1).
If the refresh cycle is disabled, only new commands shall cause non-idle
signals to be sent to the tracks.
If the refresh signal is disabled, if the Special Option #25 is not set
and if the 'flags' parameter of the 'ID' cmd was specified as 0, then
NO SIGNAL shall be generated (DC output!).

(If SO #25 is set, this forces sending a DCC idle signal even if no DCC Lok
is in the refresh cycle.)



*** SO [number]
Allows reading the value of a Special Option.
Legal range for 'number' is 0..999.


Intellibox: general purpose and events related P50Xb commands
(document version 0.994 - 09/03) - by St.Ch-B.
Uhlenbrock Elektronik GmbH
=============================================================

N.B.
P50Xb commands which are not defined (in this or in a related
document) do NOT reply with anything!
In fact, such an undefined P50Xb cmd would simply be discarded
by the Intellibox.


N.B.
The most common mistake, when starting to use P50X commands,
is to forget about the reply which almost all commands, even very
simple ones like XPwrOn, do send.
If you forget to explicitly receive this reply, it shall nevertheless
"be there" (in the receive buffer of the PC - whatever this may be:
hardware or software). Quite obviously, this shall have unexpected
consequences later on, while processing replies from other commands.
Therefore: as a rule please assume that all P50X commands DO send
some kind of reply. Only a few commands do not send any reply at all.



######### P50 commands issued through P50Xb commands

These two commands have been introduced in order to allow you
to drop the typical leading "x" char of P50X commands (through
the 'ZzA1' P50Xa cmd), while still being able to issue P50 commands.
In fact, once the 'ZzA1' cmd has been issued, no P50 command is
*directly* executable, as the 1st received byte would always be
interpreted as the 1st byte of a P50X cmd.


*** XP50Len1 (0C6h) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	same as a one byte long P50 cmd (e.g. s88, Pwr On/Off,
	and also turnout 'off')
N.B. there is NO reply!


*** XP50Len2 (0C7h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st & 2nd  same as a two byte long P50 cmd (e.g. Lok control,
	   Fnc control and Turnout control (red on/green on))
N.B. there is NO reply!



######### P50Xb general usage commands


*** XPwrOff (0A6h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok)


*** XPwrOn (0A7h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok) or error code XPWOFF (06h): the Power is Off!
XPWOFF is reported if an error condition (e.g. 'overheating')
prevents the Intellibox from turning on the power to the layout.


*** XHalt (0A5h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok) or error code
While in halt mode, all Loks are stopped.
The light and the driving direction are still controllable.
Turnouts can be controlled.
Halt mode is terminated by a Power On command (manual or PC).

N.B. The IB itself does not currently give any visual cue about the
fact that Halt mode is active. To this avail, in a future software
release, probably the red and the green LED's shall blink 'together'.
It shall be possible to activate the Halt mode by *briefly* pressing
the IB Stop and the Go keys togheter (a longer, about 2-3 seconds,
closure of these two keys causes an IB reset - the latter is true also
in the current software release).
[Note: the above paragraph is to be moved to a different chapter, since
it has nothing to do with the P50X!]


*** XSOSet (0A3h) - length = 1+3 bytes
N.B. NOT IMPLEMENTED IN THE INTELLIBOX!!
(Always replies with: XSYERR - that is: starting from SPU v1.002)
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of SO (Special Option) number
2nd	high byte of SO number
3rd	new SO value
legal SO number is 0..999
depending on the specific SO, the 3rd byte must lay inside a given
range (i.e., for each SO there is a minimum and a maximum value).
Special Options are user-only configurable parameters which control
many aspects of the Intellibox. Please check SO_DOC.TXT for a list of
the main SO's and their 'meaning'.
Reply:
Either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code:
XSYERR	(01h)	cmd not implemented
XBADPRM	(02h)	bad SO # (bad parameter value)
XBADSOV	(0Fh)	bad SO value
N.B. By design choice there is NO command for writing (changing) the
value of an SO in the Intellibox. This can only be done manually, using
the IB menus. The XSOSet cmd has only been defined in view of possible
future devices (e.g. CompuBox) and/or software implementations.


*** XSOGet (0A4h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of SO (Special Option) number
2nd	high byte of SO number
legal SO number is 0..999
Special Options are user-only configurable parameters which control
many aspects of the Intellibox. Please check SO_DOC.TXT for a list of
the main SO's and their 'meaning'.
Reply:
Either 00h (cmd Ok, one more byte shall follow) or error code (XBADPRM).
The eventual 2nd byte holds the SO value.


*** XVer (0A0h) - length = 1 byte
Reply: iterated format consisting of one 1st byte telling
the amount of bytes which shall follow. If this 1st byte
is zero, then this is the last byte of the XVer reply.
For example, the IB replies with:
02h, <SPU version low>, <SPU version high>,
02h, <KPU version low>, <KPU version high>,
01h, <PPU version>,
01h, <LIPU version>,
01h, <DNG version>,
05h, <IB serial number: 5 bytes (digits 98, 76, 54, 32, 10)>,
00h

A single byte version # is to be interpreted as: H.L
For example: 10h -> version 1.0
A two byte version # (low/high) is to be interpreted as: H.HLL
For example: 23h, 10h -> version 1.023
(the version numbers and the serial number are sent in BCD
notation - Binary Coded Decimal).

The serial number is to be interpreted as: '9876543210' - i.e.
digit '9' is the most significant digit, etc...

SPU = System Processing Unit (the IB 'heart')
KPU = Keypad Processing Unit (user interface)
PPU = Peripheral Processing Unit (digital signal generator)
LIPU = Lokmaus/I2C Processing Unit
DNG = Dispositivo di Nostra Gestione (sorry this is italian language!)


*** XP50XCh (0A1h) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	new P50X lead-in char (range: 0 or 50h..5Fh)
If 00h is specified (as parameter value), then the P50X protocol
shall be disabled. Re-enable is possible only by PC break or Intellibox
reset. The latter would only work provided that the Intellibox has been
configured that way using its menus (i.e. configured for 'P50X enabled').

Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok) or error code


*** XStatus (0A2h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
1st	current system status:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    |Sts2 |VReg |ExtCU|Halt | Pwr | Hot | Go  |Stop |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Sts2	currently always reported as 0. If set, then
			one more byte is to be expected as part of
			the XStatus reply (this would be an eventual
			expansion for a future software release)
			This would be similar to what happens with
			the XEvent cmd.
		VReg	set if voltage regulation (N scale) is enabled
		ExtCU	set if an external I2C Central Unit is present
		Halt	set if in Halt mode (Lok's stopped, Pwr On)
		Pwr	set if we are in Power On
		Hot	Overheating condition detected
		Go	set if a [Go] key on an external I2C device
			is currently pressed
		Stop	set if a [Stop] key on an external I2C device
			is currently pressed


*** XNOP (0C4h) - length = 1 byte
This cmd can be used in order to automatically identify the
currently selected IB baud rate and protocol.
In fact, this cmd only replies with the typical P50Xb 'Ok' (00h)
answer. This, along with the fact that the 0C4h P50 cmd replies
with two bytes (s88 data from the 4th s88 module), enables
automatic baud rate and protocol identification.
A second possible usage would be: checking that the communication
channel with the IB still works.

N.B. The IB discards any byte which has been received with 'wrong'
     stop bits. This fact is 'used' as part of the automatic baud
     rate identification algorithm.


*** XSensor (098h) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	s88 module number (1..128)
s88 module numbers 1..31 may correspond to real s88 modules
connected to the IB. Module numbers starting from 32 only
correspond to LocoNet sensors.
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok, 2 bytes shall follow) or error code (XBADPRM)
	As usual, only in case of no error, more bytes are sent:
2nd	contacts #1..8 (bits #7..0)
3rd	contacts #9..16 (bits #7..0)

N.B. If less than 31 'real' s88 modules are used, then the
corresponding addresses can be used for LocoNet sensors.
(Check also XEvtSen cmd.)
This would be the mapping of LocoNet sensors to s88 modules:
LocoNet sensor #0	s88 module #1, contact #1
LocoNet sensor #1	s88 module #1, contact #2
...
LocoNet sensor #15	s88 module #1, contact #16
LocoNet sensor #16	s88 module #2, contact #1
...
...
LocoNet sensor #2047	s88 module #128, contact #16

The current version of the IB software "only" supports up to 2048
LocoNet sensors (0..2047). Eventual LocoNet messages related to higher
sensor addresses are currently discarded (ignored).

N.B. In agreement with the Digitrax LocoNet documentation,
bit 'I' of byte 'IN2' of the OPC_INPUT_REP LocoNet message
is regarded as the least significant bit of the LocoNet
sensor address.

N.B. The data read by the XSensor cmd shows the *current* status,
not the accumulated OR status (as would be the case for P50
s88 commands), for the s88 module or LocoNet sensor being read.

Reading an s88 module with the XSensor cmd removes any
eventually pending sensor event for that module.



*** XSensOff (099h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
1st	always 00h
This cmd tells the IB to report as new 'sensor events' the status of
all sensors which aren't 'off'.
It can be useful, e.g., at the start of a PC program, in oder to read,
using events, what the current status of all sensors ist.
Sensors for which no events shall be reported (after an XSensOff cmd)
can be assumed to be in the 'off' condition.
[Note: is there a way to improve this description?]


*** X88PGet (09Ch) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameter (byte):
1st	s88 parameter number
Allows reading the current value of an s88 related parameter.
Currently, these are the accessible parameters:
00h	# of automatically read s88 'half modules'
	(check also P50Xa 'SE' cmd)
01h	s88 module 'half number' which is source for the s88 timers
02h	s88 module 'half number' which is source for the s88 counters

Reply: either 00h (cmd Ok, one byte shall follow) or error code.
Eventual 2nd byte holds the s88 parameter value


*** X88PSet (09Dh) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	s88 parameter number (check X88PGet for details)
2nd	s88 parameter value
Allows setting current value of an s88 related parameter.

N.B. s88 parameter shall only be modified up to the next IB reset.
     In fact, upon an IB reset all s88 parameters are reset to the
     values specified by the user (per IB menus) and stored in the
     corresponding Special Option.

Reply: either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code.


*** Xs88Tim (09Eh) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	Bit #0..3: s88 Timer number (1..8)
	Bit #7 = set if Timer to be reset after reading (i.e. after this cmd)
	(Bit #4..6 are reserved: must always be 0)
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok, 2 bytes shall follow) or error code
	As usual, only in case of no error, more bytes are sent:
2nd	s88 Timer value (low byte)
3rd	s88 Timer value (high byte)
The timer value is to be interpreted in 200 ms units.

Provided the corresponding s88 input is 'on' (closed), each s88 Timer
is incremented (i.e., Timer = Timer + 1) approximately every 200 ms.
Upon eventually reaching the maximum value (0FFFFh), there is no
'wrap around': the timer stays at this maximum value.


*** Xs88Cnt (09Fh) - length = 1+1 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	Bit #0..3: s88 Counter number (1..8)
	Bit #7 = set if Counter to be reset after reading (i.e. after this cmd)
	(Bit #4..6 are reserved: must always be 0)
Reply:
1st	00h (cmd Ok, 2 bytes shall follow) or error code
	As usual, only in case of no error, more bytes are sent:
2nd	s88 Counter value (low byte)
3rd	s88 Counter value (high byte)

The (time) resolution of the Counters depends on the number of s88
modules which are being automatically read by the IB: the lower this
number, the higher the resolution of s88 counters (i.e. they would be
able to keep track also of very fast on/off cycles).
A reasonable estimate, while automatically reading the first 8 s88
modules, would be about 50 ms resolution for the Counters - or better.
Upon eventually reaching the maximum value (0FFFFh), there is no
'wrap around': the counter stays at this maximum value.




######### P50Xb events related commands

Please check also the IBE.BAS events demonstration program.


*** XEvent (0C8h) - length = 1 byte
Reply:
the length of the reply varies from one to three bytes.
The length is determined from bit #7 of bytes #1 and 2.
If bit #7 is set, then one more byte shall be sent as part
of the reply.
Bit #7 of the 3rd byte is currently always reported as 0.
It could be used in the future for further extensions
to the XEvent cmd reply.
In case of 'no event to report', the reply consists of a
single byte: 00h.

A pseudo-code algorithm should make things clear:

if (bit #7 of 1st byte of reply to XEvent cmd is 1) then
	receive also 2nd byte
	if (bit #7 of 2nd byte... is 1) then
		receive also 3rd byte
	else
		consider 3rd byte as if it were 00h
	endif
else
	consider 2nd and 3rd bytes as if both were 00h
endif

N.B. only **after** having eventually received also the 2nd and
the 3rd byte one should proceed and process the 'normal' (i.e.,
not bit #7) event flags of the XEvent reply.
This is to prevent 'forgetting' about the 2nd and 3rd byte and/or
mixing up a reply to a further cmd with this 2nd and 3rd byte.

1st	event flags to be interpreted as:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    | Ev2 |  x  |Trnt |TRes |PwOff| Sen | IR  | Lok |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Ev2	set if also the 2nd byte of the XEvent
			reply shall be sent (i.e.: there is at least
			one event also in the 2nd or in the 3rd byte)
		x	(reserved for future use)
		Trnt	there has been at least one non-PC Turnout cmd
		TRes	there has been at least one non-PC attempt at
			changing the status of a 'reserved' Turnout
		PwOff	there **has been** (not: is!) a Power Off
		Sen	there has been at least one sensor event
			(s88 or LocoNet)
		IR	there has been at least one infra-red event
		Lok	there has been at least one non-PC Lok cmd


2nd	event flags to be interpreted as:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    | Ev3 | Sts | Hot |PTSh |RSSh |IntSh|LMSh |ExtSh|
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Ev3	set if also the 3rd byte of the XEvent reply
			shall be sent (i.e.: there is at least an
			event also in the 3rd byte)
		Sts	an XStatus cmd should be issued
		Hot	Overheating condition detected
		PTSh	while the PT relay was on (e.g., PT in 'PT only'
			mode), a non-allowed electrical connection btw
			the Programming Track and the rest of the layout
			has been detected
		RSSh	overload (short) on the DCC Booster C/D lines
			or on the LocoNet (B connector) Rail Sync +/-
			lines (or on the PT, if the PT relay was on)
		IntSh	short reported by the internal Booster
		LMSh	overload (short) on the Lokmaus bus
		ExtSh	short reported by an external Booster


3rd	event flags to be interpreted as:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    | Ev4 |  x  |  x  |ExVlt|TkRel| Mem |RSOF |  PT |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Ev4	not currently used, reported as 0
		x	not currently used
		ExVlt	an external voltage source is present
			(prior to turning on the layout). E.g.
			an external transformer is in contact
			with the rails.
		TkRel	report Lok 'take' and 'release' events
			from non-PC Lok controllers
			(to be documented)
		Mem	set if there has been at least one
			'memory' event (to be documented - related
			to the future IB 'memory' software expansion)
		RSOF	set if an RS-232 rx overflow has been
			detected (the PC probably does not
			correctly handle the CTS line)
		PT	a PT event is available.
			N.B. This bit must be 'cleared' by sending
			     the XPT_Event cmd!

Possible future events (and eventual associated commands):
- events from s88 Counters and/or Timers.
- events from 6043 (Mrk Memory).


Note:
though it is possible to only issue XEvtSen, XEvtLok, etc... cmds
while not issueing any XEvent cmd, please be advised that, particularly
in the case of XEvtSen, in most cases no speed advantage would result
from doing this.
Besides, since XEvent also reports error events (e.g. Power off or Short),
it would be best to use XEvent and, depending on its reply, eventually
issue XEvtSen, XEvtLok, etc...



*** XEvtSen (0CBh) - length = 1 byte
Report eventual sensor events (s88 modules and/or LocoNet sensors)
Reply: iterated format consisting of one 1st which tells:
- 1st byte = 00h -> 'no further sensor event to report'
- 1st byte > 00h -> s88 module number whose status is reported
		    with the next 2 bytes
The 1st byte holds the current status of this s88 module
inputs #1..8 (bit #7..0).
The 2nd byte holds the current status of this s88 module
inputs #9..16 (bit #7..0).

The s88 module number is 'real' for modules 1..31 (31 is
the maximum number of physical s88 modules which can be
connected to the IB). For s88 module numbers greater or equal
32, a 'virtual' module is assumed: the reported data really
relates to LocoNet sensors starting from sensor #497.
If only 'Events stile' reading of sensor data is performed (i.e.
if only the XEvtSen cmd is used for reading sensor status),
then physical s88 modules and LocoNet sensors can coexist in the
same address range.
Of course, this would be a relatively strange arrangement!

Please note: the current version of the IB software does not
process nor store any OPC_SW_REP LocoNet messages (turnout feedbacks).
On the countrary, OPC_INPUT_REP messages are internally stored and
processed (these would be the sensor messages of LocoNet).

N.B. It is possible that the XEvent cmd reports a sensor event,
but that a subsequent XEvtSen does not report any sensor event!
This happens if the sensor status has changed back to its previous
('on') status in the time elapsed btw the XEvent and the XEvtSen cmds.
In other words: it is possible to miss a super-fast 'off' status for
a sensor which is normally 'on.
On the countrary a no matter how brief 'on' status would always be
reported at least once.

It is guaranteed that an answer to a XEvtSen event does NOT include
the SAME s88 module twice.
The status of up to 128 s88 modules may be reported by the XEvtSen cmd.

N.B.
NO SENSOR EVENT IS REPORTED, as far as physical s88 modules are concerned,
if the automatic reading (check P50Xa 'SE' cmd in the P50XAGEN.TXT file)
has been either disabled ('SE 0') or set too low.
In the latter case, no event would be reported for s88 modules laying
"outside" the automatic read range.
Therefore, while the user can set per IB menu's the amount of s88 modules
connected to the IB, it would be best to check this setting by PC and/or
let the user configure this also per PC - thus eventually sending an
appropriate 'SE xx' cmd.
The 'SE' cmd obviously does not affect LocoNet sensors.



*** XEvtLok (0C9h) - length = 1 byte
Report locomotives whose status may have changed due to non-PC
commands. Up to 119 locomotives may be reported by XEvtLok.
Reply: iterated format consisting of one 1st byte which tells:
- 1st byte = 80h -> 'no further Lok event to report'
- 1st byte < 80h -> Lok status in this (Speed) and next 4 bytes.
- 1st byte > 80h -> reserved for future use!

Complete Lok status is given by:
1st	Speed: 0..127 (0 = Stop, 1 = Stop/Em.Stop)
2nd	F1..F8 (bit #0..7)
3rd	low byte of Lok# (A7..A0)
4th	high byte of Lok#, plus Dir and Light status as in:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    | Dir |  FL | A13 | A12 | A11 | A10 | A9  | A8  |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Dir	Lok direction (1 = forward)
		FL	Light status
		A13..8	high bits of Lok#

5th	'real' Lok speed (in terms of the Lok type/configuration)
	(please check XLokSts in P50X_LT.TXT for doc on 'real' speed)

The maximum number of events which can be reported by one XEvtLok
cmd is 119: the amount of LocoNet 'normal' slots supported by the IB.
('Special' slots being those used for the Programming Track and
for the FAST clock feature (the latter is not supported in the
current IB software version).)
[### Note: add documentation with regard to the 1st byte (reply): Speed
is reported in a "funny" way for non-128 speed steps Loks.]
[### Note: add enphasys on the fact that the current _status_ is reported,
not the status at the time of the event]



*** XEvtTrn (0CAh) - length = 1 byte
Report eventual turnout events (turnout commands **not** from the PC).
Reply: a first byte which tells:
- 1st byte = 00h -> 'no turnout event to report'
- 1st byte > 00h -> this many turnout events are going to be reported
For each reported turnout event, two bytes are sent. The format is the
same used with the XTrnt P50Xb cmd for **sending** a turnout cmd to
the IB, with the exception that bit #5..3 are always reported as 0.
These bits are reserved for future use.
Up to 64 turnout events may be reported by one XEvtTrn cmd. This would
be the size of the turnout events buffer in the IB. Should more such
events occurr before an XEvtTrn cmd is issued, then newer events shall
overwrite older ones.



*** XEvtIR (0CCh) - length = 1 byte
Report eventual events due to Infra-Red (remote controller) commands.
Reply: a first byte which tells:
- 1st byte = 00h -> 'no IR event to report'
- 1st byte > 00h -> this many IR events (not bytes!) are going to be
reported. For each reported IR event, two bytes are sent.
The format of these two bytes is:
1st
	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    |  1  |  0  |  T  | Ch4 | Ch3 | Ch2 | Ch1 | Ch0 |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Ch0..4	channel number (IRIS: 24, 25, 26, 27)
		T	this bit toggles at each new keypress,
			therefore, it can used to tell btw
			a new cmd and the repetition of a
			previous cmd
		0	this bit always has the value 0
		1	this bit always has the value 1

2nd
	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    |  0  | PC  | K5  | K4  | K3  | K2  |  K1 | K0  |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		K5..0	Cmd (key) code
		PC	This bit is set for IR events resulting
			from the usage of IR_PCx or IR_PCLNx IRIS tokens
		0	this bit always has the value 0

In this context, a 'token' is a command/action which has been assigned
to a particular IRIS key. Tokens include: digits (e.g., during loco,
turnout, route selection), loco/trnt/route selection start, speed control,
direction control, function control, turnout control, route activation,
send an IR event to the PC, send a LocoNet msg.
Tokens can also be assigned to (generated by) specific IRIS keys depending
on the status of an IRIS channel. For example, pressing a digit key on the
IRIS can generate two different tokens depending on if we are in a
selection mode or not.
Tokens are assigned using IB SO's. This is documented in a separate file.

With regard to the IRIS (Infra-Red Intellibox System) - and thus with
regard to the IR events, the IB can be setup in different ways.
With regard to IR events, SO #768 is used to tell:
- bit #0: set if the IB is to report to the PC any received infra-red
          command _not_ coming from an IRIS channel
- bit #1: set if the IB is to report to the PC any received infra-red
          command which translated to an IR_PCx or IR_PCLNx token
- bit #2: set if the IB is to report to the PC any received infra-red
          command coming from an IRIS channel
- bit #3: set if the IB is to report on LocoNet any received infra-red
          command which translated to an IR_LNx or IR_PCLNx token

If both bits #1 and #2 are set and if an infra-red command is received with
translates to an IR_PCx or IR_PCLNx token, then 2 IR events shall be reported
by the IB.

LocoNet messages resulting from IR_LNx or IR_PCLNx tokens have this format
(hex):
E5 07 00 00 00 5x Cks  (for new keypresses)
E5 07 00 00 00 6x Cks  (for repetitions)
(where x equals the x in the IR_LNx or IR_PCLNx token).
This msgs are only sent if SO #768.3 has the value 1.



*** XEvtPT (0CEh) - length = 1 byte
Report Programming Track events - please check the P50X_PT.TXT document.



*** XEvtTkR (0CFh) - length = 1 byte
Report Lok 'take' and 'release' events.
(To be defined and documented).



*** XEvtMem (0D0h) - length = 1 byte
Report 'Memory' events.
(To be defined and documented).


Intellibox: locomotive and turnout P50X cmds
(document version 0.982 - 09/01) - by St.Ch-B.
Uhlenbrock Elektronik GmbH
==============================================

(This document uses the word 'turnout' instead of 'accessory'.
Therefore, a 'turnout' can also be a signal, etc... not only a 'real
turnout'!)


*** Introductory note: locomotive direction in the P50 and in the P50X

This note is not required reading.
In a nutshell it only says: the IB tries to keep track internally of
the driving direction even of decoders (e.g. Old Motorola format ones)
which do not support such a feature. The idea is to make the different
digital formats as 'transparent' as possible to a computer application.
Please skip to the next section ('address conflict') if you are not
interested in knowing the details of how the driving direction is
handled in the IB.



Most Motorola-format locomotive decoders produced up to now do NOT
support the notion of a "driving direction". In other words, the decoder
does NOT "know" what the front side of the locomotive is. There is no way
to tell it "go forward" or "go backwards". You can only tell the decoder
to invert its driving direction.
This fact is reflected in the P50, the protocol of a 6050 Interface:
you can only tell a locomotive to change (invert) its driving direction,
you CANNOT tell "her" to go in a specific direction.
(A 6051 interface uses **the same protocol** as a 6050!)

This holds true even if using a 6050 along with a 6021, i.e. even if
the Central Unit used is capable (with dip-sw #2 of the 6021 placed in
the "on" position) of *generating* the so-called "new motorola format"
digital signal - a signal which, countrary to the original motorola
format (known as the "old motorola format"), DOES include information
specifying what the locomotive driving direction (usually referred to
as the "absolute driving direction") should be.

There is a (small) helping factor: if you do a power off which lasts
only a few seconds (up to a day or so for newer decoders), then it is
guaranteed that the previous driving direction has not been "forgotten"
by the decoder.
Conversely, after a longer lasting Power Off, the decoder, having
forgotten its previous driving direction, defaults to a specific driving
direction (determined by the way it has been connected to the locomotive
engine: the green and the blue wire).

One more factor to consider: some motorola format decoders (those based
on the 70113 and 70117 chips) only accept a direction change command,
provided that the speed they currently are at is NOT higher than speed 6
(expressed in terms of the P50).
(However: the 70117 chip, being able to understand the new motorola
format, obviously always evaluates the "absolute driving direction"
information of that protocol).

N.B. By design choice, the IB does NOT take into account this "speed 6"
issue. Therefore: a P50 "direction change" command (Speed = 15) is
regarded as effective if the current speed of the locomotive was not
already "speed" 15.
(Please consider that older and newer decoders, along with Uhlenbrock
decoders, react to a direction change command even if at speeds higher
that P50 speed 6).


Therefore, we have the following situation:

- P50: no notion of an absolute driving direction.
  Only a "direction change" can be commanded.

- P50X: a bit in the command for locomotives is reserved for specifying
  the driving direction. There is NO command for telling a Lok to
  "change" (invert) its driving direction (but this can be easily done
  by toggling the Dir bit of a locomotive, as shown from its status or
  as has been specified by the previous command issued to this locomotive).
  Though it cannot be 100% reliable, this direction bit is also effective
  with decoders which do not support an absolute driving direction.

Furthermore, there is a compatibility issue: since P50 commands can be
used in order to drive even non-Motorola format decoders (for locomotive
addresses in range 0..255), then a peculiar (but perfectly normal)
behaviour of Motorola format decoders must be symulated also for decoders
whose digital format does support an absolute driving direction.
The "problem" is: if you issue the P50 command for changing locomotive
direction (this would be: Speed = 15), then the locomotive shall indeed
change its driving direction ONLY IF the "speed" at which it currently is
is NOT already "speed" 15 (and, check above note, for some decoders the
current speed must be less or equal P50 speed 6).
In other words: in order to positively change the speed of a locomotive,
the following sequence of P50 commands should be sent:

<speed = 0, i.e. Stop>
<"speed" 15>

In particular, in order to change twice the driving direction of a
locomotive, it is MANDATORY to send at least the following sequence:

<"speed" 15>
<non-"speed" 15 (e.g.: speed 0 = Stop)>
<"speed" 15>

where it is assumed that, before sending this sequence, the locomotive
speed was NOT already "speed" 15 (and was not greater than speed 6) - or
else a non-"speed" 15 command (e.g. Stop) would have had to be sent before
the above sequence, in order for the very first direction change command
to be effective.


Let's consider what the possible P50 cases are, but first let us define
some terms:

P50-CD	  P50 command for direction change ("speed" = 15)
	  N.B. The Speed of a Lok commanded at P50-CD would be shown
	       as 1 by locomotive status query P50X commands.
Mot-CD	  direction change digital signal in the motorola format
          (this would be "speed" 1 - in the digital signal)
Stop	  speed = 0 = inertial stop
Em. Stop  non-inertial (fast) stop
Dir	  absolute driving direction
CrS	  current locomotive speed in terms of the P50 protocol
.NE.	  Not Equal
.LE.	  Less or Equal
Slot	  LocoNet slot (please check Digitrax LocoNet documentation)
SO	  Special Option
LSO	  Lok Special Option



###### P50

a) DCC
a P50-CD shall always result in an Em. Stop being sent to the locomotive.
Furthermore, if CrS .NE. P50-CD, then the direction of the locomotive
shall be inverted. Otherwise, it shall NOT be inverted.
N.B. Mixing of P50 and P50X commands: a P50-CD is internally stored as
a P50X Speed = 1 (Em. Stop). Therefore, issueing a P50-CD after
having commanded the Lok, through a P50X cmd, in Em. Stop, shall NOT
result in a direction change.


b) FMZ
a P50-CD shall always result in an Em. Stop being sent to the locomotive,
along with Speed = Stop (Em. Stop is sent through a separate bit in the
FMZ protocol).
Furthermore, if CrS .NE. P50-CD, then the direction of the locomotive
shall be inverted. Otherwise, it shall NOT be inverted.
(Also check the "Mixing of P50/P50X commands" note at point "a" above).


c) SX
a P50-CD shall always result in a Stop being sent to the locomotive.
Furthermore, if CrS .NE. P50-CD, then the direction of the locomotive
shall be inverted. Otherwise, it shall NOT be inverted.
(Also check the "Mixing of P50/P50X commands" note at point "a" above).


d) Motorola Old
all P50 commands are directly sent to the tracks.
If CrS .NE. P50-CD, then the direction of the locomotive, as memorized
in the IB, shall be inverted. Otherwise, it shall NOT be inverted.
Furthermore, in this case a Stop is automatically sent before the Mot-CD.
(Also check the "Mixing of P50/P50X commands" note at point "a" above).


e) Motorola New
all P50 commands are directly sent to the tracks.
If CrS .NE. P50-CD, then the direction of the locomotive shall be inverted.
Otherwise, it shall NOT be inverted.
(Also check the "Mixing of P50/P50X commands" note at point "a" above).
In case of a direction change, the following shall be sent:
- if this particular Lok has been configured this way (using the Special
  Options for this very locomotive (LSO)), then an old format Mot-CD shall
  be sent. This would be the default configuration;
- Mot-CD shall be sent (in the new Motorola format);



###### P50X (or LocoNet)

Xa) DCC
P50X commands directly map to DCC commands. There is no special case
to consider.


Xb) FMZ
P50X commands directly map to FMZ commands. There is no special case
to consider.


Xc) SX
P50X commands (almost) directly map to SX commands. The only case to
consider is Em. Stop. In fact, since the SX protocol does not have
this feature, an eventual Speed = 1 command (Em. Stop) shall be
translated to a normal Stop (Speed = 0).


Xd) Motorola Old
Speed = 1 is converted, only as far as the digital signal is concerned,
to Speed = 0 (Stop). This is done in order to avoid having a Speed = 1
P50X cmd 'implicitly' change the driving direction: since we are in
the P50X, the Dir bit should be used for this purpose!
The P50X Speed would still be shown as 1 by a Lok status query P50X cmd.

If a P50X command specifies a new (different from the current) Dir,
then the following shall be automatically sent to the locomotive:
- Stop;
- Mot-CD;
- current Speed.


Xe) Motorola New
Depending on each Mot New Lok configuration (Lok Special Option #6 for each
Mot New Lok), a Speed = 1 P50X cmd may or may not be changed to Speed = 0.
The default is to convert it - as usual: only as far as the digital
signal is concerned - to Speed = 0 (LSO #6 = 0): this solves a problem with
some programmable decoders (e.g. Uhlenbrock and XR1). In fact, these decoders
enter programming mode if the Mot-CD signal is sent to them for more than
X seconds (usually: X = 8..10 seconds).
If a particular Lok is not equipped with such a decoder, then it may
be configured so that the mentioned Lok Special Option #6 = 1. This implies
that, since the decoder understands the new Motorola protocol, it shall
NOT change direction when receiving the Mot-CD signal resulting from the
Em. Stop P50X cmd. This results in an Em. Stop like behaviour.

If a P50X command specifies a new (different from the current) Dir,
then the following shall be automatically sent to the locomotive:
- Stop;
- if this particular Lok has been configured this way (using the Special
  Options for this very locomotive), then an old format Mot-CD shall be
  sent. This would be the default configuration;
- finally, the IB shall send the Speed specified by the P50X command, along
  with the specified direction - obviously using the new Motorola format.


The strategy for case "Xd" above has one side effect: using the P50X (or,
equivalently, LocoNet) it is not possible to send to the tracks the
Mot-CD command for Lok addresses configured for the Motorola Old protocol.
Therefore, in the case of some programmable decoders (e.g. Uhlenbrock, XR1,
etc...), it would not be possible to have the decoder enter programming mode.
This can be easily solved from the PC side by using a P50 cmd.


There is at least one more issue to consider: what happens if a locomotive
equipped with a Motorola format decoder of the old type is operated
through the IB using a locomotive address which has been configured
for the new Motorola format (or vice versa)?
Given the default IB configuration for Motorola New, decoders **should**
behave "correctly", i.e. change direction as expected. In fact, the
default configuration asks for old protocol Mot-CD commands to be sent
to the tracks before the new protocol ones.
The exception is: if a P50X Speed = 1 command is sent to an Old Motorola
format decoder being operated through an IB locomotive address configured
for the New Motorola format (with LSO #6 = 1), then the locomotive would
change driving direction, without the IB LCD (and the Lok status) showing
it. This "mismatch" would not happen in case of P50 commands.



Address conflicts involving the PC (RS-232 interface)
-----------------------------------------------------

This would mean: the PC is trying to send a command to a Lok already
controlled by a non-PC device.
The vice versa does not 'exist': since the P50X protocol defines Lok
events, when the PC issues a cmd to a Lok, that Lok is NOT declared
'taken', i.e. a non-PC device would still have free access to that Lok.
Through Lok events the PC would be informed about eventual usage of
that Lok by other devices.
Therefore, let's consider only the case of the PC trying to get control
of a Lok already controlled by a different device.

P50)
In this case, Special Option #20 tells whether to discard a Lok Speed+FL
command (SO #20 = 0) or to execute it even if the Lok is already
controlled by a non-PC device (SO #20 = 1). The IB default for SO #20
is 1, therefore the PC can always send commands to any Lok.
Differently from P50 Speed+FL commands, P50 Functions commands are
always executed (there is no SO to consider).
A 6050 would behave this way for function cmds, but would discard any
Lok (Speed + FL) cmds sent to a Lok which is already 'taken'.

P50X)
While functions commands are always executed (just like in the P50 case),
Lok commands are executed only if the involved Lok is not already
controlled by a non-PC device.
However, the P50Xb XLok cmd provides a bit which allows the PC to
override this default behaviour: if this 'Force' bit is set, then the cmd
would be effective even in case of Loks already controlled by a
non-PC device. There is no such 'Force' bit for the P50Xa 'L' cmd.




P50Xa (P50X ASCII) locomotive and turnout control commands.
-----------------------------------------------------------

As usual, the syntax of P50Xa cmds is shown using these 'meta-symbols':
[]	tell an optional parameter or parameter plus separators, etc
{}	tell a non optional part of the command, which may contain
	optional parts
|	tells that two or more possibilities exists: those shown before
	and after this symbol


*** L {Lok#, [Speed], [FL], [Dir], [F1], [F2], [F3], [F4]}
Lok#	0..9999 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
Speed	0..127 (0 = Stop, 1 = Stop/Em.Stop (protocol dependent))
FL	Light status (1 = on, 0 = off)
Dir	Direction (1 = forward, 0 = reverse). Direction may also be
	specified as 'f' = forward or 'r' = reverse
F1	F1 status (1 = on, 0 = off)
etc...

depending on the Lok protocol, not all parameters are internally used
or have the same range.
For example, the (real) address range of each protocol is:
Mrk	1..80 (1..255 for Uhlenbrock decoders)
SX	0..111
DCC	1..9999 (not every DCC decoder supports addr. > 99 or 127)
FMZ	1..119
however, virtual addresses can go from 0 to 9999.

Depending on Lok protocol, Speed = 1 means (check also initial
introductory note):
Mrk Old		same as Stop
Mrk New		Emergency Stop
Selectrix	same as Stop
DCC		Emergency Stop
FMZ		Emergency Stop

Another variable is the number of additional functions (apart from FL,
i.e. usually the Lok lights - also known as F0):
Mrk		4
Selectrix	1
DCC		4+ (F5.. to be specified using the P50Xa 'F' cmd)
FMZ		1

If only the first (mandatory) cmd parameter is specified (i.e. Lok#),
then the current status of this Lok shall be displayed, provided, of
course, that this Lok has ever been commanded before! (Or else the
message 'No Lok data!' would be displayed.)

The Speed parameter is *internally* scaled down in compliance with
the Lok protocol. Min speed is always set by Speed = 2.
Max Speed is always set by Speed = 127. The actual number of non-Stop
speed steps varies depending on the Lok protocol:
Mrk		14
Selectrix	31
DCC		14/27/28/126
FMZ		15

All parameters excluding the Lok# are optional. If at least one is
specified, then Lok status is updated only as far as the specified
parameter is concerned. Should no previous status be available, then
the default is:
Speed = 0
Dir = 1 = forward
FL (light) = Off
F1..F4 = Off
This only applies to the case in which at least one status parameter
has been specified!
In fact, as already written above, if no previous status is known and
if the P50Xa 'L' cmd only specifies the Lok# parameter, then an error
message is sent ('No Lok data').

Address conflict with other devices:
if the Lok specified by the 'L' cmd is already controlled by a non-PC
device, then the error message 'Lok busy!' shall be displayed.

Halt mode:
If the Intellibox is in Halt mode, then Lok status (as specified by the
'L' cmd) is updated, but any Speed changes involving a non-Stop speed
shall NOT be effective.
In this case, the reply shall be: "Halted!".

Power Off:
If the Intellibox is in Power Off, then Lok status (as specified by the
'L' cmd) is updated. In this case, the reply shall be: "Pwr Off".



*** LC {Lok#}
Lok#	0..9999 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
Reports Lok protocol configuration (e.g. 'Mot Old', etc...) and
number of non-Stop speed steps.
N.B. There is NO cmd for setting the Lok configuration from the PC!
     Loks **must** be configured using the IB menus.



*** F {Lok#, [F1], [F2], [F3], [F4], [F5], [F6], [F7], [F8]}
Lok#	0..9999 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
F1	F1 status (1 = on, 0 = off)
etc...

If only the first (mandatory) cmd parameter is specified (i.e. Lok#),
then the current status of this Lok shall be displayed - as far as
functions are concerned.

The 'F' command is effective even if the specified Lok is already
controlled by a non-PC device (there is no address conflict).



*** T {Trnt#, [Color], [Status]}
Trnt#	1..2040 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
	Please note: turnout address, NOT turnout *decoder* address!
	Legal Motorola format turnout address range: 1..320
	Legal DCC format turnout address range: 1..2040
Color	'r' (red = thrown) or 'g' (green = closed)
	('r' may also be spec'd as '0', 'g' also as '1')
Status	1 = on, 0 = off (if not specified -> off)

If only the first (mandatory) cmd parameter is specified (i.e. Turnout#),
then the current status of this Turnout shall be displayed.

In addition to the usual 'Syntax Error' reply, this cmd can also
reply with:
'Turnout fifo is full!'
'Power is Off!'
'Illegal Turnout address for this protocol!'



*** TR {Trnt#, [Res]}
Trnt#	1..2040 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
	Please note: turnout address, NOT turnout *decoder* address!
Res	A flag specifying whether this turnout should be reserved (1)
	or not (0) for exclusive PC control. If Res = 1, then non-PC
	turnout commands shall not be executed by the IB - and a
	corresponding event shall be generated (check XEvent cmd).
If only the first (mandatory) cmd parameter is specified (i.e. Turnout#),
then the current 'reserved' status of this Turnout shall be displayed.



######## Possible future cmd

*** LM  {...}
Setup, delete and report multi-tractions (consists).


*** FX {Lok#, [F9], [F10], [F11], [F12], ...?}
Lok#	0..9999 (depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)
F9	F9 status (1 = on, 0 = off)
etc...




P50Xb (P50X binary) locomotive & turnout control commands.
----------------------------------------------------------

(please read also introduction to P50Xa Lok/turnout cmds!)


*** XLok (080h) - length = 1+4 bytes
Parameters (byte) - please check also P50Xa 'L' cmd:
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address
3rd	speed (0..127: 0 = Stop, 1 = Stop/Em.Stop)
	N.B. bit #7 is reserved for future use!
4th	this byte has the following format:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    |ChgF |Force| Dir | FL  | F4  | F3  | F2  | F1  |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		ChgF	set if F1..F4 to be used for setting F1..F4 of
			Lok (otherwise F1..F4 are ignored)
		Force	if set (1), then the XLok command is 'forced'
			even in case of a Lok already controlled by a
			non-PC device
		Dir	Lok direction: 1 = forward, 0 = reverse
		FL	Lok light status: 1 = on, 0 = off
		F4..F1	Lok F4..F1 status (if ChgF is set)

N.B.	Address must be in range 0..9999
	(depending on protocol, not every address is legal!)

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code.

Error/warning codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XNOLSPC (08h)	there is no space in the Lok cmd buffer, please try later!
XNOSLOT (0Bh)	there is no slot available
XBADLNP (0Ch)	Lok# is illegal for this protocol
XLKBUSY (0Dh)	Lok already controlled by another device
XLKHALT (41h)	Command accepted (Lok status updated), but IB in 'Halt' mode!
XLkPOFF (42h)	Command accepted (Lok status updated), but IB in Power Off!



*** XLokSts (084h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 3 bytes shall follow) or error code
2nd	Speed (0..127: 0 = Stop, 1 = Stop/Em.Stop)
3rd	same format as 4th parameter of XLok cmd (bit #6 & 7 = 0)
4th	'real' Lok speed (in terms of the Lok type/configuration)

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XNODATA (0Ah)	no Lok status available (Lok is not in a slot)
XBADLNP (0Ch)	Lok# is illegal for this protocol

N.B.
The 'real' speed is NOT expressed in the P50 format!
According to each protocol, the 'real' speed value tells:
Motorola:
 0 (Stop), 1 (Change Dir), 2 (min Speed), .., 15 (max Speed)
Selectrix:
 0 (Stop), 1 (min Speed), .., 31 (max Speed)
DCC:
 0 (Stop), 1 (Em.Stop), 2 (min Speed), .., 15/28/29/127 (max Speed)
FMZ:
 0 (Stop), 1 (min Speed), .., 15 (max Speed)
 (no information is returned about an eventual FMZ Em. Stop status,
 however this can be inferred from the Speed status of the Lok,
 i.e. from the 2nd byte of the XLokSts reply)

If you need to compute the P50 speed starting from the P50X Speed,
the following BASIC routine shows how to proceed (this very algorithm
is internally used by the IB):

DEFINT A-Z
FUNCTION P50_Speed% (P50X_Speed AS INTEGER)
SELECT CASE P50X_Speed
CASE 0, 1
   P50_Speed = 0
CASE ELSE
   P50_Speed = INT((P50X_Speed * 2) / 19) + 1
END SELECT
END FUNCTION

(Obvioulsy, it cannot ever happen that P50_Speed() = 15.)

The opposite conversion is performed using a table, indexed by the
P50 speed:
   0,  2, 10, 19, 29, 38, 48, 57, 67, 76, 86, 95, 105, 114, 127, 1

The speed conversion routines for the other protocols/speed steps are:

Speed_15:
(FMZ protocol: 0 = Stop, 1..15 = non-stop speed steps)
   IF (P50X_Speed = 0) OR (P50X_Speed = 1) THEN
      Speed_15 = 0
   ELSE
      Speed_15 = INT((P50X_Speed + 1) / 9) + 1
   ENDIF


Speed_27:
(DCC 27 protocol: 0 = Stop, 1 = Em. Stop, 2..28 = non-stop speed steps)
   IF (P50X_Speed = 0) OR (P50X_Speed = 1) THEN
      Speed_27 = P50X_Speed
   ELSE
      IF (P50X_Speed < 8) THEN
         Speed_27 = 2
      ELSE
         nTemp = P50X_Speed * 2
         nTemp1= INT(nTemp / 9)
         nTemp2= nTemp - (nTemp1 * 9)
         IF (nTemp2 >= 7) THEN
            nTemp1 = nTemp1 + 2
         ELSE
            nTemp1 = nTemp1 + 1
         ENDIF
         IF nTemp1 > 28 THEN
            Speed_27 = 28
         ELSE
            Speed_27 = nTemp1
         ENDIF
      ENDIF
   ENDIF


Speed_28:
(DCC 28 protocol: 0 = Stop, 1 = Em. Stop, 2..29 = non-stop speed steps)
   IF (P50X_Speed = 0) OR (P50X_Speed = 1) THEN
      Speed_28 = P50X_Speed
   ELSE
      Speed_28 = INT(((P50X_Speed - 2) * 2) / 9) + 2
   ENDIF


Speed_31:
(Selectrix protocol: 0 = Stop, 1..31 = non-stop speed steps)
   IF (P50X_Speed = 0) OR (P50X_Speed = 1) THEN
      Speed_31 = 0
   ELSE
      IF (P50X_Speed < 4) THEN
         Speed_31 = 1
      ELSE
         Speed_31 = INT(P50X_Speed / 4)
      ENDIF
   ENDIF



*** XLokCfg (085h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 4 bytes shall follow) or error code
2nd	Lok protocol: 0..3 = Mrk, SX, DCC, FMZ
3rd	# of (non-Stop) speed steps supported by this Lok type.
	Currently this would be: 14, 15, 27, 28, 31 or 126
The rest of the reply depends on whether this Lok is a virtual one
or a real one:

- Virtual
4th	Real Lok# (low) corresponding to this virtual one
5th	Real Lok# (high) (Bit #6 is 0, this tells a virtual Lok from
	a real one)

- Real
4th	0FFh
5th	0FFh  (bit #6 is 1, this tells a real Lok from a virtual one)

N.B.
Bit #7 in the 5th byte of the reply is reserved for future use.

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value



*** XLkDisp (083h) - length = 1+2 bytes
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address (or 0FFh if asking for dispatch status)

Reply (if Lok address high byte not equal 0FFh, i.e. 'dispatch put'):
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code (e.g. XBADLNP, XNODATA)
or (if Lok address high byte equal 0FFh, i.e. 'dispatch get'):
1st     either 00h (there is no dispatched slot to 'get') or slot #
        (1..119) of slot waiting to be 'got'



*** XFunc (088h) - length = 1+3 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address
3rd	status of F1 (bit #0) .. F8 (bit #7)

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code.

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XNOSLOT (0Bh)	there is no slot available
XBADLNP (0Ch)	Lok# is illegal for this protocol



*** XFuncSts (08Ch) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 1 byte shall follow) or error code
2nd	status of F1 (bit #0) .. F8 (bit #7)

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XNODATA (0Ah)	no Lok status available (Lok is not in a slot)
XBADLNP (0Ch)	Lok# is illegal for this protocol



*** XTrnt (090h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Turnout address (A7..A0). Please note: turnout
	address, NOT turnout *decoder* address!
2nd	high byte of Turnout address plus 'color' and status bits:

	bit#   7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
	    |Color| Sts | Res |NoCmd| n.u.| A10 |  A9 |  A8 |
	    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

	where:
		Color	1 = closed (green), 0 = thrown (red)
		Sts	turnout status (1 = on, 0 = off)
		Res	set if this turnout is to be reserved
			for exclusive PC control: this would imply
			that non-PC commands to this turnout would
			be discarded by the IB. An event would also
			be generated (please check the XEvent cmd)
		NoCmd	if set then no turnout cmd is actually sent
			to the tracks. Setting this bit allows, e.g.,
			to only set/reset the 'Res' bit of a turnout.
			Besides, if NoCmd is set, not even the internal
			IB status of this turnout is modified.
		n.u.	not currently used (0)
		A10..A8	top address bits of turnout address
Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok) or error/warning code

Error/warning codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XPWOFF (06h)	Error: the Power is Off!
XNOTSPC (09h)	Error: the fifo for turnout cmds is full, please try later
		Plase note: XNOTSPC was erroneosly described as being
		equal to 07h in P50X_LT.TXT versions up to the 0.93 one.
		Please also note the new XNOISPC reply.
XBADTNP (0Eh)	Error: illegal Turnout address for this protocol
XNOISPC (10h)	Error: the I2C fifo is full, please try later
XLOWTSP (40h)	Warning: the fifo for turnout cmds is 75% full

The IB fifo for turnout cmds can hold up to 16 turnout cmds.
This allows 'parallel' turnout and Lok commands execution.
This fifo also plays a role in avoiding blocking the RS-232 channel in
case of a Power Off.

== A side note ==
If a P50 turnout cmd is sent to the IB while in Power Off, then such a
command would be inserted in the turnout cmd buffer as usual, provided
that the Special Option (SO) #21 is 0 (this would be the IB default).
However, since while in Power Off the turnout buffer is not processed
'from the other side' (no turnout cmds are sent to the tracks),
sooner or later this buffer shall get full - thus eventually blocking
any further PC command to the IB.
If SO #21 is 1, then P50 turnout cmds which are sent by the PC while
the IB is in Power Off are automatically discarded, therefore no
blocking the RS-232 channel can occur.
The default SO #21 value (0) corresponds to what a 6050+Mrk CU would do.



*** XTrntFree (093h) - length = 1 byte
Allows resetting the 'Res' (reserved) bit of all turntouts with only
one command.
Reply:	always 00h
N.B. Use the XTrnt cmd, with the 'NoCmd' = 1, for individually setting
     the 'reserved' status of each turnout.

N.B. It would be best to issue an XTrntFree cmd before exiting your
     PC program! (Or else some turnouts may be left in the 'reserved'
     status, not allowing a user to issue manual commands to these.)



*** XTrntSts (094h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Turnout address
2nd	high byte of Turnout address

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 1 byte shall follow) or error code
2nd	turnout configuration in bit #0: (check Bit #3 below)
	turnout 'reserved' status in bit #1: 1 = reserved, 0 = free
	turnout color in bit #2: 1 = green (closed), 0 = red (thrown)
	turnout extended configuration in bit #3:
		Bit #0/3	turnout type
		  00		  Motorola
		  10		  DCC
		  01		  SX
		  11		  FMZ
	Other bits are reserved for future use.

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value
XBADTNP (0Eh)	Error: illegal Turnout address for this protocol



*** XTrntGrp (095h) - length = 1+1 byte
Parameters (byte):
1st	Turnout 'group' address (legal value: 1..255)
The turnout 'group' address would be 1 for turnouts #1..8,
2 for turnouts #9..16, etc... With a formula:
turnout 'group' address = ((turnout address - 1) \ 8) + 1
Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 2 bytes shall follow) or error code
2nd	Turnout 'group' color: each bit tells the 'green' (1) or
	'red' (0) status of the corresponding turnout.
	The 1st turnout of this group is in bit #0, etc...
3rd	Turnout 'reserved' status: each bit...

Error codes:
XBADPRM (02h)	illegal parameter value




######## Possible future cmds

*** XFuncX (089h) - length = 1+3 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address
3rd	status of F9 (bit #0) .. F16 (bit #7)

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok) or error code.



*** XFuncXSts (08Dh) - length = 1+2 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of Lok address
2nd	high byte of Lok address

Reply:
1st	either 00h (cmd Ok, 1 byte shall follow) or error code
2nd	status of F9 (bit #0) .. F16 (bit #7)


Intellibox: Programming Track P50X commands
(document version 0.98 - 05/04) - by St.Ch-B.
Uhlenbrock Elektronik GmbH
=============================================

*** N.B.
The Intellibox does not support the FMZ protocol and all related commands.
The TWIN-CENTER does not support the Motorola protocol and all related
commands.
Apart from these cases, the term "TWIN-CENTER" can be substituted for
"Intellibox" in all this document.


The Intellibox can operate the Programming Track (PT) simultaneously with the
normal tracks. There is no need to turn off the power to the layout in order
to perform a PT operation.
The Intellibox (IB) also features an integrated relay. This relay - depending
on IB configuration - can automatically connect the PT output of the IB either
to the normal power output of the IB or to the 'real' PT circuitry of the IB.

It must be guaranteed that NO electrical connection exists between the PT and
the normal tracks. Double gaps MUST be used - it is NOT enough to isolate only
one rail.


*** *** *** WARNING *** *** ***

Please keep in mind that some older Lenz decoders (e.g. LE075 and the c82
from Maerklin/Lenz) are PERMANENTLY DAMAGED by being programmed on an address
greater then 99 (or, depending on decoder model, 127). Therefore, extreme
caution should be exercised when programming **any** register of these
decoders.
As a safety measure, do NOT write values greater than 99 into any register!
Since it is not possible, from the IB point of view, to find out exactly what
kind of DCC decoder is on the PT, it is not possible to automatically detect
these older decoders and block any such "illegal" programming attempts.
Therefore, since other decoders do not have this limitation, the IB does NOT
impose a reduced range for the writeable values: it is up to the user to be
aware of this potential "dangerous" case.

Since these older decoders only support 'register mode' read/write, no damage
can occurr if using one of the other DCC write modes - particulary 'direct'
mode.




P50Xa (P50X ASCII) Programming Track commands.
----------------------------------------------

Upon issueing a P50Xa PT cmd, the IB shall reply only at the end of the
corresponding action (e.g., when the decoder issues an acknowledge, when
an error condition is detected, etc...).
No other P50(X) cmd shall be processed until then.
Most commands execute within 5..20 seconds.
Motorola search is the slowest (about 1 minute).

N.B. This behaviour (reply only at the end of PT processing) is quite
different from what happens in case of (most) P50Xb commands: these would
always immediately reply (meaning: cmd accepted or not), while only later
would they provide the "real" reply (through a "PT event").

Should the PT already be used by, e.g., a LocoNet device
(KPU, etc...), then the P50Xa cmd shall immediately return
with a 'Busy!' message: the cmd could not be executed.

Non error results (messages) are:
'Ok'		the PT cmd has been successfully completed
'Yes'		the DCC decoder (probably) supports direct bit read cmds
'No'		the DCC decoder (probably) does not support direct bit
		read cmds

Error messages are:
'Busy!'		the PT is in use by a different device (e.g. LocoNet)
'Short!'	short detected (on the PT)
'No decoder'	no decoder could be detected (bad contact?)
'No ack'	no acknowledge from decoder (but maybe a Write was ok!)
'No page'	no acknowledge from decoder to the 'page' operation
'Bit read err'	error in a DCC direct bit command
'SX read err'	error while reading a Selectrix decoder
'Timeout'	cmd not successfully completed
'Error'		generic error


######## General usage

*** PT
show PT & PT relay status


*** PT1/0
PT relay On/Off



######## Selectrix

*** PTSR
SX Read


*** PTSW
SX Write {addr (0..111), vmax (0..7), accel (0..7), pwm (1..4), stops (1..2)}
(N.B. this cmd currently does NOT perform a verify (read+compare)).
ALL parameters are MANDATORY!



######## FMZ

*** PTFS
This command is only available in the Twin-Center.
PTFS = FMZ Search (address read)


*** PTFW
This command is only available in the Twin-Center. The syntax is:
FMZ Write {addr(1..119)}
(N.B. this cmd DOES verify, after programming, that the decoder address equals
the addr parameter)


*** PTFE
This command is only available in the Twin-Center. The syntax is:
FMZ Write {addr(1..119), SMin(1..99), SMax(2..100), SKL(1..3)}
(N.B. this cmd DOES verify, after programming, that the decoder address equals
the addr parameter)
All parameters are mandatory.
N.B. SMin must be less than SMax.



######## Motorola

*** PTMS
Motorola Search (address read) {1st addr}
The optional '1st addr' parameter (starting with v1.002) allows specifying
the 1st address to be searched. If no '1st addr' is specified, then the
search starts from address 1.
This parameter allows searching for multiple addresses: Uhlenbrock decoders,
for example, provide this feature.



######## Uhlenbrock

N.B.
All Uhlenbrock decoders programming commands allow skipping one or more
parameters. In this case, these parameters must be specified as zero -
or, equivalently, they can be skipped with commas.
The only non-skippable parameter is (quite obviously!) 'Old Address'.
For example: 'ptua 3,4,,60' would program decoder #3 on the new address
4, set its max speed to 60 and leave other decoder parameters unchanged.

Furthermore, the Min and Max Speed and the 'Special Options' parameter
of the 755/6 and the 'Assign 1' and 'Assig 2' parameters of the 760 are
to be specified as +1 (with respect to what spec'd in the decoder manual).
This does NOT apply to values input using the Intellibox menus (i.e.,
'by hand').
In case of Min and Max Speed (of 755/6), this implies that it is not
possible to set these two decoder variables to the value 255. The maximum
value is 254 (i.e., 255-1). This (254) would also be the maximum value
when using the IB menus. (Specifying these two values as '1' would set
them in the decoder to the value 0, which would imply that the Lok would
not move!)

N.B. It is NOT possible to read values programmed into Uhlenbrock
decoders (e.g. max Speed, etc...). Only addresses can be read using the
'Motorola Search' (PTMS) command.



*** PTUA
Uhlenbrock 750/751/770 {
Old Address (1..255),  - cannot be 0!
New Address (0..255),
Min Speed (0..63),
Max Speed (0..63),
Deceleration (0..79),
Acceleration (0..79),
2nd Address (0..255),
Analog(1)/Digital(2) (0..2)
}
N.B. Max Speed >= (Min Speed + 13) - this is NOT checked by the Intellibox!


*** PTUB
Uhlenbrock 755/756 {
Old Address (1..255),  - cannot be 0!
New Address (0..255),
Speed Table (0..4),
Min Speed (0..255),
Max Speed (0..255),
Deceleration (0..79),
Acceleration (0..79),
2nd Address (0..255),
3rd Address (0..255),
Analog(1)/Digital(2) (0..2),
Special Options (0..64)
}
N.B. Max Speed >= (Min Speed + 13) - this is NOT checked by the Intellibox!


*** PTUC
Uhlenbrock 760 {
Old Address (1..255),  - cannot be 0!
New Address (0..255),
Mode (0..4),
PWM Freq (0..2),
Volt A1,A2 (0..8),
Volt A3-A5 (0..8),
Flash rate 1 (0..79),
Flash rate 2 (0..79),
Assignement 1 (0..32),
Assignement 2 (0..32)
}


*** PTUR
Uhlenbrock (all decoder types) {
Old Address (1..255),  - cannot be 0!
}
This command resets the decoder, thus restoring factory defaults (e.g.
acceleration, deceleration, etc...).



######## DCC

*** PTDS
DCC Search: address search (read)
(to be used with 'non-readable' decoders)


*** PTQA
DCC Query Address: address read for very old decoders
(e.g. c82, old Lenz models)


*** PTRR {Register# (1..8)}
DCC Read using register mode


*** PTWR  {Register# (1..8), Value (0..255)}
DCC Write using register mode


*** PTRP {CV# (1..1024)}
DCC Read using paged mode


*** PTWP  {CV# (1..1024), Value (0..255)}
DCC Write using paged mode


*** PTRD {CV# (1..1024)}
DCC Read using direct (byte) mode


*** PTWD  {CV# (1..1024), Value (0..255)}
DCC Write using direct (byte) mode


*** PTRB {CV# (1..1024)}
DCC Read using direct (bit) mode
(N.B. a **whole** CV (8 bits) is read, not just one bit!)


*** PTWB  {CV#, Bit# (0..7), Value (0..1)}
DCC Write using direct (bit) mode
(N.B. a **single** bit of a CV is written, not the whole CV!)


*** PTQD
DCC Query Direct
(Does the decoder support direct (bit) read commands?)


*** PTRL
DCC Read long address from CV17/18
(N.B. this cmd also **automatically** sets Bit #5 of CV29)
Only compatible with decoders supporting direct bit read and write mode!


*** PTWL {long address (128..9999)}
DCC Write long address into CV17/18
(N.B. this cmd also **automatically** sets Bit #5 of CV29)
Only compatible with decoders supporting direct bit read and write mode!
N.B. Long addresses in range 0..127 are legal 14-bit addresses,
however, since the Intellibox uses 7-bit packets in this
address range, we do not allow these values with the PTWL cmd.
(Long addresses in range 10000..10239 are legal but not supported.)



######## Possible future cmds

*** PTRA
DCC Read Address (auto 7/14-Bit identification and test)


*** PTWA {address (1..9999)}
DCC Write Address (auto 7/14-Bit identification and test)


*** PTID
Automatic decoder identification and address search



######## Related P50Xa cmds (DCC)

*** CV {CV17 (192..231), CV18 (0..255))
Convert CV17, CV18 values into corresponding long address
(N.B. the Intellibox only supports long addresses in range 128..9999)


*** CA {long address (0..10239)}
Convert long address into corresponding CV17, CV18 values
(N.B. the Intellibox only supports long addresses in range 128..9999)


*** PD {addr (1..9999), CV# (1..1024), value (0..255)}
Program (write) a Lok decoder using operations mode (main line)
programming.
(The Intellibox uses the specified address value in order to
tell whether to use a 7-bit (1..127) or a 14-Bit (128..9999)
packet).
N.B. Long addresses 0..127 are legal 14-bit addresses,
however the Intellibox uses 7-bit packets for address range 1..127 - and
address 0 (a legal 14-bit address) is not supported by the Intellibox
for DCC decoders.
(Long addresses in range 10000..10239 are legal but not supported.)
If the IB buffer for operations mode commands is not free, this cmd
replies with 'Busy!'.
N.B. the **real** address of a Lok must be specified, not the virtual one!


*** PA {addr (0..510), CV# (1..1024), value (0..255)}
Program (write) an Accessory decoder using operations mode (main line)
programming.
N.B. The ***decoder*** address is to be specified, NOT the turnout
     address! (Decoder address = (Turnout address - 1) / 4 + 1)
If the IB buffer for operations mode commands is not free, this cmd
replies with 'Busy!'.





P50Xb (P50X binary) Programming Track commands.
-----------------------------------------------

Upon issuing a (valid) P50Xb PT cmd which asks for a PT task,
the IB shall immediately reply. The reply consists of a single byte:

00h	cmd accepted, task in progress
80h	PT is busy (e.g. in use by a LocoNet device or previous task
	not yet completed)
02h	bad parameter value in cmd, cmd rejected

The 'busy' reply does NOT apply to commands which do not ask
for a read or write task to be performed on the PT.


######## Reply to XEvtPT (0CEh) cmd

Upon task completion, the Intellibox shall set the PT event flag
(as read by the "are there events?" cmd (XEvent = 0C0h)).
The PC can now issue the XEvtPT cmd (0CEh) and get the result
of the PT task. The result is transmitted to the PC using
the following format:


*** 1st byte
either 0F5h (no PT event to report (e.g. task not yet completed))
or # of bytes to follow. Currently, only these values are possible
for the # of bytes to follow: 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6.


*** 2nd byte (sent only if 1st byte wasn't 0F5h)
status of PT task:
000h	Command completed, no errors
0FFh	Timeout
0FEh	No acknowledge from decoder (but a write maybe was successful)
0FDh	Short! (on the PT)
0FCh	No decoder detected
0FBh	Generic Error
0FAh	Error during DCC direct bit mode operation
0F9h	No acknowledge to paged operation (paged r/w not supported?)
0F8h	Error during Selectrix read
0F7h	XPT_DCCQD: Ok (direct bit read mode is (probably) supported)
0F6h	XPT_DCCQD: Not Ok (direct bit read mode is (probably) not supported)
0F4h	Task terminated (see XPT_Term cmd)
0F3h	No task to terminate (see XPT_Term cmd)
0F2h	Cannot terminate task (see XPT_Term cmd)


*** 3rd byte (sent only if 1st byte = 2, 3, 4, 6)
1st byte resulting from a PT read task:
- the content of a Register or CV (DCC Read cmds);
- 1st decoder address ('search' cmds);
- low byte of long addr read by DCC long addr read cmd;
- address (Selectrix read): value = 0..111


*** 4th byte (sent only if 1st byte = 3, 4, 6)
2nd byte resulting from a PT read task:
- eventual 2nd decoder address ('search' cmds);
- high byte of long addr read by DCC long addr read cmd;
- max speed (Selectrix read): value = 0..7


*** 5th byte (sent only if 1st byte = 4, 6)
3rd byte resulting from a PT read task:
- eventual 3rd decoder address ('search' cmds);
- acceleration (Selectrix read): value = 0..7


*** 6th byte (sent only if 1st byte = 6)
4th byte resulting from a PT read task:
- PWM (Selectrix read): value = 1..4


*** 7th byte (sent only if 1st byte = 6)
5th byte resulting from a PT read task:
- # of stop zones (Selectrix read): value = 1 or 2


While a PT task is executing due to a P50Xb cmd, the Intellibox
can process other P50X cmds. This is NOT true for P50Xa PT cmds!

N.B. It is not mandatory to read the result of a PT task with the
XEvtPT cmd. If the PC starts a new task (after completion of a
previous task), this shall erase any 'unread' result.



######## Reply to other P50Xb PT commands

With the exception of XEvtPT and XPT_Sts, other PT commands
reply with the usual P50Xb reply: 00h to tell 'Ok, cmd accepted'
or a value different from zero to tell 'some error occurred'
(e.g. illegal cmd parameter value, etc...).
A reply of 00h to a command involving a read or write operation on
the PT implies that the corresponding task has been started - and
that, in due time, a PT event shall be generated.
Depending on the task involved, its execution may take from a
fraction of a second up to about 1 minute or more.


P50Xb PT commands are in range 0E0h..0FEh.


######## General usage

*** XPT_Sts (0E0h) - length = 1 byte
Report PT status:
1st	bit #0:
		0 = PT in 'PT only' mode
		1 = PT in 'auto' mode
	bit #1:
		0 = PT relay is off
		1 = PT relay is on
	bit #7: (check also XEvent cmd)
		0 = no PT event is pending
		1 = a PT event is pending
	(other bits are not currently defined and reported as zero)

2nd	zero if no PT task is executing (PT is 'idle')
	otherwise a non-zero value is returned


*** XPT_On (0E1h) - length = 1 byte
Turn on the PT relay


*** XPT_Off (0E2h) - length = 1 byte
Turn off the PT relay
May report:
000h	Ok, PT relay has been turned off
080h	PT is busy!
0F1h	Cannot turn off the PT relay: PT in 'PT only' mode!


*** XEvtPT (0CEh) - length = 1 byte
Report PT task event: see above for description of cmd reply.


*** XPT_Term (0FEh) - length = 1 byte
Terminate (abort) current PT task
Reply (one byte):
000h	task terminated
	(an XEvtPT cmd would now report: 01h, 0F4h)
0F3h	no task is active!
0F2h	could not terminate task!



######## Selectrix

*** XPT_SXRd (0E4h) - length = 1 byte
Read Selectrix decoder


*** XPT_SXWr (0E5h) - length = 1+5 bytes
Write Selectrix decoder
Parameters (bytes):
1st	Decoder address (0..111)
2nd	Max speed (0..7)
3rd	Acceleration (0..7)
4th	PWM (1..4)
5th	# of stop zones (1..2)


*** XPT_SXSr (0E6h) - length = 1 byte
Search for address of a Selectrix decoder
(to be implemented)



######## FMZ

*** XPT_FMZSr (0E7h) - length = 1 byte
Search for address of an FMZ decoder


*** XPT_FMZWr (0E8h) - length = 1+1 bytes
Write FMZ decoder address.
Parameters (byte):
1st	Decoder address (1..119)


*** XPT_FMZEWr (0DDh) - length = 1+4 bytes
Write FMZ decoder: address, SMin, SMax, SKL.
Parameters (byte):
1st	Decoder address (1..119)
2nd	SMin (1..99) minimum speed
3rd	SMax (2..100) maximum speed
4th	SKL (1..3) Steuerkennlinie (speed curve)
N.B. SMin must be less than SMax.



######## Motorola

*** XPT_MrkSr (0E9h) - length = 1+1 bytes
N.B. up to v1.001 this cmd did NOT have any parameters!
Search for address of a Motorola decoder
Parameter (byte):
1st	1st address to search for (0..255)
A value of 0 for this parameter is interpreted as 1.
N.B. this command has been changed with respect to the version
1.000 of the SPU. In that case, cmd length was 1 byte only:
there was no provision for specifying a '1st address', therefore
it was not possible to search for multiple addresses (this is a
feature of Uhlenbrock decoders).
Please check also the 'PTMS' P50Xa cmd.



######## DCC

*** XPT_DCCSr (0EAh) - length = 1 byte
Search for address of a DCC decoder
(decoders which are not 'readable', e.g. Roco/Lenz digital crane)


*** XPT_DCCQA (0EBh) - length = 1 byte
Read address using obsolete "Address Query" packet
(can only report 7-bit addresses in range 1..111)


*** XPT_DCCRR (0ECh) - length = 1+2 bytes
Read using register mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	Register# (1..8)
2nd	00h


*** XPT_DCCWR (0EDh) - length = 1+3 bytes
Write using register mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	Register# (1..8)
2nd	00h
3rd	write value (0..255)


*** XPT_DCCRP (0EEh) - length = 1+2 bytes
Read using paged mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024


*** XPT_DCCWP (0EFh) - length = 1+3 bytes
Write using paged mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
3rd	write value (0..255)
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024


*** XPT_DCCRD (0F0h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Read using direct (byte) mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024


*** XPT_DCCWD (0F1h) - length = 1+3 bytes
Write using direct (byte) mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
3rd	write value (0..255)
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024


*** XPT_DCCRB (0F2h) - length = 1+2 byte
Read using direct (bit) mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024
(N.B. a whole CV (8 bits) are read, not only 1 bit!)


*** XPT_DCCWB (0F3h) - length = 1+4 bytes
Write a single bit using direct (bit) mode
Parameters (byte):
1st	CV# low byte
2nd	CV# high byte
3rd	Bit# (0..7)
4th	write value (0..1)
N.B. CV# must be in range 1..1024
(N.B. a single bit is written, not the whole CV!)


*** XPT_DCCQD (0F4h) - length = 1 byte
Does the decoder support bit read mode?
(A 'yes' answer does NOT imply that also bit write cmds are accepted by
the decoder!)


*** XPT_DCCRL (0F5h) - length = 1 byte
Read long (loco) address from CV17/18 and automatically set bit #5 of CV29
Only compatible with decoders supporting direct bit read and write mode!


*** XPT_DCCWL (0F6h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Write long (loco) address into CV17/18 and automatically set bit #5 of CV29
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of long address
2nd	high byte of long address
N.B. address must be in range 128..16383
Only compatible with decoders supporting direct bit read and write mode!
N.B. the address high limit is set to 16383 (instead of 9999), in order
     to be able to program the full range of addresses supported by
     LISSY IR senders. The IB is _NOT_ capable of controlling DCC
     addresses higher than 9999 and the DCC legal locomotive address
     range ends at 10239.


*** XPT_DCCRA (0F7h) - length = 1 byte
Read long (accessory decoder) address from CV513/521.


*** XPT_DCCWA (0F8h) - length = 1+2 bytes
Write long (accessory decoder) address into CV513/521.
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of address
2nd	high byte of address
N.B. address must be in range 0..511


*** XPT_DCCEWr (0DCh) - length = 1+4 bytes
Generate and program the 'speed table' (CV's #67 through 94) of a
DCC 28 speed steps decoder. Three curve types can be specified:
1 = linear (constant speed increase: speed proportional to speed step)
2 = 'exponential' (finer speed control at low speed steps)
3 = 'logarithmic' (finer speed control at high speed steps)

Furthermore, the minimum and maximum speed must be specified (in range
1 through 101). The max speed can be adjusted so as to eventually
take into account a non 'full' (0 through 255) format of CV's 67
through 94 - or, of course, to reduce the maximum speed.
SMax = 101 gives a max speed of 254 (value programmed into CV #94).
SMax =  40 gives CV #94 = 100
SMax =  13 gives CV #94 = 32

SMin = 1 gives a minum speed of 2 (value programmed into CV #67).

Parameters (byte):
1st	(not currently used)
2nd	SMin (1..123) minimum speed
3rd	SMax (2..124) maximum speed
4th	SKL (1..3) Steuerkennlinie (speed curve)

N.B. SMin must be less than SMax.



######## Uhlenbrock

*** XPT_U750 (0F9h) - length = 1+8 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	Old Address (0..255) - N.B. 0 = special case: check note below
2nd	New Address (0..255)
3rd	Min Speed (0..63)
4th	Max Speed (0..63)
5th	Deceleration (0..79)
6th	Acceleration (0..79)
7th	2nd Address (0..255)
8th	Analog(1)/Digital(2) (0..2)
N.B. Max Speed >= (Min Speed + 13) - this is NOT checked by the Intellibox!
N.B. all parameters, with the exception of 'Old Address' (check note below),
can be specified as zero value. This implies: do not program the corresponding
register in the decoder (i.e. preserve the current value). However, zero value
parameters MUST still be sent as part of the command. In other words: the cmd
length is constant.

Note: Old Address = 0 case
In this case, the decoder reset procedure is performed. This applies to all
kinds of Uhlenbrock decoders (750, 751, 770, 755, 756 and 760).
The New Address parameter holds the 'Old' (i.e. current) address of the
decoder. This feature has been introduced starting with v1.001.


*** XPT_U755 (0FAh) - length = 1+11 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	Old Address (1..255) - cannot be 0!
2nd	New Address (0..255)
3rd	Speed Table (0..4)
4th	Min Speed (0..255)
5th	Max Speed (0..255)
6th	Deceleration (0..79)
7th	Acceleration (0..79)
8th	2nd Address (0..255)
9th	3rd Address (0..255)
10th	Analog(1)/Digital(2) (0..2)
11th	Special Options (0..64)
N.B. Max Speed >= (Min Speed + 13) - this is NOT checked by the Intellibox!
N.B. all parameters, with the exception of 'Old Address', can be specified
as zero value. This implies: do not program the corresponding register in
the decoder (i.e. preserve the current value). However, zero value parameters
MUST still be sent as part of the command. In other words: the cmd length
is constant.
N.B. Min Speed, Max Speed and Special Options value is internally decremented
by one (by the Intellibox). Therefore, its value must be specified as '+1'
with respect to what documented in the decoder manual.


*** XPT_U760 (0FBh) - length = 1+10 bytes
Parameters (byte):
1st	Old Address (1..255) - cannot be 0!
2nd	New Address (0..255)
3rd	Mode (0..4)
4th	PWM Freq (0..2)
5th	Volt A1,A2 (0..8)
6th	Volt A3-A5 (0..8)
7th	Flash rate 1 (0..79)
8th	Flash rate 2 (0..79)
9th	Assignement 1 (0..32)
10th	Assignement 2 (0..32)
N.B. all parameters, with the exception of 'Old Address', can be specified
as zero value. This implies: do not program the corresponding register in
the decoder (i.e. preserve the current value). However, zero value parameters
MUST still be sent as part of the command. In other words: the cmd length
is constant.
N.B. Assignement 1 & 2 value is internally decremented by one (by the
Intellibox). Therefore, these values must be specified as '+1' with respect
to what documented in the decoder manual.



######## Possible future commands

*** XPT_Src (0FCh) - length = 1 byte
Fully automatic decoder identification and address read


*** XPT_Ctrl (0FDh) - length = 1+(to be defined)
PT control by external device



######## Related P50Xb cmds (DCC)

*** XDCC_PD (0DEh) - length = 1+5 bytes
DCC operations mode programming for Loks
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of address
2nd	high byte of address
3rd	CV# low byte
4th	CV# high byte
5th	write value (0..255)
N.B. address must be in range 1..9999
(The Intellibox uses the specified address value in order to
tell whether to use a 7-bit (1..127) or a 14-Bit (128..9999)
packet).
N.B. Long addresses 0..127 are legal 14-bit addresses, however the
Intellibox uses 7-bit packets in this address range.
Address 0 is not supported by the Intellibox for DCC decoders.
(Long addresses in range 10000..10239 are legal but not supported.)
N.B. the **real** address of a Lok should be specified, not the virtual one!
Reply:
00h	cmd Ok
80h	the IB buffer for operations mode programming is not (yet) free
	(e.g. it is used by a LocoNet device or previous operation not yet
	completed)


*** XDCC_PA (0DFh) - length = 1+5 bytes
DCC operations mode programming for Accessory Decoders
Parameters (byte):
1st	low byte of address
2nd	high byte of address
3rd	CV# low byte
4th	CV# high byte
5th	write value (0..255)
N.B. address must be in range 0..510
N.B. The ***decoder*** address is to be specified, NOT the turnout
     address! (Decoder address = (Turnout address - 1) / 4)
Reply:
00h	cmd Ok
80h	the IB buffer for operations mode programming is not (yet) free
	(e.g. it is used by a LocoNet device or previous operation not yet
	completed)


Intellibox: Special Options (SO)
(document version 0.41 - 07/99) - by St.Ch-B.
=============================================

The Intellibox uses up to 1000 Special Options (SO), numbered from 0 to 999.
These are modifiable by the user only through the Intellibox menus, not by PC
(see also XSOSet command) - however, the PC can read the value of all SO's.
Each SO controls a particular aspect of the Intellibox configuration.
This document lists some of these 1000 SO's, along with their 'meaning'.

Only some SO's are documented. These would be the 'main' SO's, i.e. those
which would or could make sense being able to modify. Please do NOT change
the value of other SO's as this could interfere or even impede correct
Intellibox operation.

A maximum and a minimum value are internally associated with each SO.
The Intellibox does not allow selecting a value outside that range.


*** SO #1 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 4
Intellibox default power-on Baudrate.
0 = 2400 bps
1 = 4800 bps
2 = 9600 bps
3 = 19200 bps
4 = 38400 bps


*** SO #2 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 2
Intellibox default power-on RS-232 protocol.
0 = P50 only
1 = P50X only
2 = both P50 and P50X


*** SO #4 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 1
CTS line polarity (computer type)
0 = PC (CTS active when at +12V)
1 = Mac (CTS active when at -12V)


*** SO #6 (factory default = 254) - min = 0, max = 255
P5Xa 'RT' cmd default value.
254 would mean: upon a non-PC power off, the CTS line is disabled
for about 13 seconds (254 * 50 ms = 12.7 seconds).
Please check also P50Xa 'RT' cmd documentation.


*** SO #7 (factory default = 88 = ASCII 'X') - min = 80, max = 95
Default P50X cmds leading character (when in mixed P50/P50X mode).


*** SO #8 (factory default = 16) - min = 0, max = 62
Number of s88 'half-modules' to be automatically read by the Intellibox.


*** SO #10 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 8
Default Lok protocol
0 = Motorola Old
1 = Motorola New
2 = DCC: 14
3 = DCC: 27
4 = DCC: 28
5 = DCC: 28 DAC
6 = DCC: 128
7 = DCC: 128 DAC
8 = Selectrix
9 = ZZZ


*** SO #11 (factory default = 50) - min = 30, max = 100
How long, in 50 ms units, the Stop and Go keys must be held pressed
before an Intellibox reset (warmstart) is performed.
The default corresponds to 2.5 seconds.


*** SO #12 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 1
Default Turnout protocol
0 = Motorola
1 = DCC


*** SO #13 (factory default = 2) - min = 0, max = 255
Minimum Turnout 'on' time in 50 ms units.
A value of 0 turns minimum 'on' time checking off.


*** SO #14 (factory default = 100) - min = 0, max = 255
Maximum Turnout 'on' time in 50 ms units.
A value of 0 turns maximum 'on' time checking off.


*** SO #15 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 1
Whether (0) or not (1) to limit the Intellibox maximum voltage
output. Shown as "N scale" (0) or "H0 scale" (1) by the Intellibox.


*** SO #16 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 1
Programming Track mode (i.e. relay control)
0 = PT only (relay always 'on')
1 = automatic (relay 'on' only during PT mode or if explicitly
    commanded 'on' by PC)
When the PT relay is 'on' the Intellibox PT output is internally
disconnected from the normal power output and internally connected to
the Intellibox PT circuitry.


*** SO #19 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 2
Whether to restore Lok status upon turning on the Intellibox and what
eventually to restore:
0 = no restore
1 = restore Function, Dir, F1..F4, but set Speed = 0
2 = restore Function, Dir, F1..F4 and Speed
In case 1 and 2, also eventual consists (multi-tractions) are restored.


*** SO #20 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 1
Whether (1) or not (0) P50 commands to an already 'busy' Lok are
allowed ('busy' = already controlled by another (non-PC) device).


*** SO #21 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 1
Whether (1) or not (0) to discard P50 turnout commands issued while
the Intellibox is in Power Off.


*** SO #23 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 62
s88 'half-module' number which is the source for the s88 Timers.
(0 = s88 Timers are disabled).


*** SO #24 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 62
s88 'half-module' number which is the source for the s88 Counters.
(0 = s88 Counters are disabled).


*** SO #25 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 1
Whether (1) or not (0) to always send a DCC signal - eventually a DCC
idle signal (if there is no DCC Lok in the refresh cycle).


*** SO #26 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 1
Whether (1) or not (0) a PC Break (RS-232) forces 2400 bps.


*** SO #800 (factory default = 13) - min = 0, max = 13
LCD backlight level.


*** SO #801 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 100
LCD contrast voltage level (0 = about 0V, 100 = about 5V).


*** SO #802 (factory default = 4) - min = 0, max = 6
Intellibox panel LED's dimming factor (excluding Stop and Go LED's).
A higher value reduces LED's brightness.


*** SO #803 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 7
Currently selected language for Intellibox LCD messages.
0 = de, 1 = uk, 2 = fr, 3 = it, 4 = nl, 5 = se, 6 = es, 7 = pt


*** SO #808 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 1
AC (0) or DC (1) style speed knobs.


*** SO #809 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 1
Absolute (0) or Percentage (1) speed display.


*** SO #810 (factory default = 1) - min = 0, max = 255
Default turnout address (after turning on the Intellibox) to be controlled
through the first Intellibox key-pair devoted to turnout control while in
Keyboard mode (keys [1] (red) and [4] (green)).
The allowed range is 0..255, with 0 having a special meaning: it activates
a special Keyboard mode - known as "table Keyboard mode".
During this mode, each turnout control key-pair is associated with a
user-defineable turnout address.
The first turnout address is taken from the value of SO #871 incremented by 1.
The second from SO #872 +1, 3rd SO #873 +1, 4th SO #874 +1, 5th SO #875 +1,
6th SO #876 +1, 7th SO #877 +1 and the eigth turnout address is taken from
SO #878 +1.
For example: setting SO #871 to the value 10 would allow you to control the
turnout address 11 through the [1] and [4] key-pair (of course: only if this
"table Keyboard mode" has been activated!).
The activation of this special mode can also be done 'on the fly', by
choosing 0 as keyboard (base) address in the keyboard menu.
The factory default for SO #871..878 allows controlling turnouts:
11, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71 and 81.


*** SO #812 (factory default = 1) - min = 1, max = 128
Default s88 module number to be shown when activating the s88 mode after
turning on the Intellibox.
(s88 module numbers 32..128 only correspond to LocoNet sensors).


*** SO #815 (factory default = 0) - min = 0, max = 2
Default mode to be selected after turning on the Intellibox:
0 = Keyboard, 1 = s88, 2 = programming.


*** SO #901 (factory default = 1) - min = 1, max = 100
This SO has to be changed to a value **slightly** higher than the factory
default one (e.g. 3) in order make it possible to control DCC Loks on layout
sections supplied through a Maerklin Booster 6015 or 6017.
ib/p50x.txt · Last modified: 2018/11/12 08:56 (external edit)