LocoNet® Personal Use Edition 1.0 SPECIFICATION:
Digitrax Inc., Norcross GA 30071
October 16, 1997
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This Wiki page is based on loconetpersonaledition.pdf.
The data bytes on LocoNet® are defined as 8 bit data with the most significant bit (transmitted last in the
8 bit octet) as an OPCODE flag bit. If the MS bit , D7, is 1 the 7 least significant bits are interpreted as a
network OPCODE . The opcode byte may only occur once in a valid message and is the FIRST byte of a
message. All the remaining bytes in the message must have a most significant bit of 0 , including the last
CHECKSUM byte. The CHECKSUM is the 1's COMPLEMENT of the byte wise Exclusive Or of all the
bytes in the message, except the CHECKSUM itself. To validate data accuracy, all the bytes in a correctly
formatted message are Exclusive Or'ed. If this resulting byte value is "FF" hexadecimal, the message data
is accepted as good.
The OPCODES may be examined to determine message length and if subsequent response message is
required. Data bits D6 and D5 encode the message length. D3=1 implies Follow-on message/reply:
|1||0||0||F||D||C||B||A||Message is 2 bytes, including Checksum|
|1||0||1||F||D||C||B||A||Message is 4 bytes, inc. checksum|
|1||1||0||F||D||C||B||A||Message is 6 bytes, inc checksum|
|1||1||1||F||D||C||B||A||Message in N bytes, where next byte in message is a 7 bit BYTE COUNT.|
The A,B,C,D,F are bits available to encode 32 OPCODES per message length.
The model of the MASTER refresh stack is an array of up to 120 read/write refresh SLOTS. The slot
address is a principal component and is generally the second byte or 1st argument of a message to the
master. The refresh SLOT contains up to 10 data bytes relating to a Locomotive and also controls a task in
the Track DCC refresh stack. Most mobile decoder or Locomotive operations process the SLOT associated
with the Locomotive to be controlled. The SLOT number is a similar shorthand ID# to a "file handle"
used to mark and process files in a DOS PC environment. Slot addresses 120-127 ARE reserved for
System and Master control.
Slot #124 ($7C) is allocated for read/write access to the DCS100 programming track, and the format of
the 10 data bytes is not the same as a "normal" slot. See later.
To request a MOBILE or LOCOMOTIVE decoder task in the refresh stack, a Throttle device requests a
LOCOMOTIVE address for use,( opcode <BF>,<loco adr hi>,<loco adr lo>, <chk> ). The Master ( or PC
in a Limited Master environment) responds with a SLOT DATA READ for the SLOT ,( opcode <E7>,,)
,that contains this Locomotive address and all of its state information. If the address is currently not in
any SLOT, the master will load this NEW locomotive address into a new SLOT ,[speed=0, FWD,
Lite/Functions OFF and 128 step mode]and return this as a SLOT DATA READ. If no inactive slots are
free to load the NEW locomotive address, the response will be the Long Acknowledgment ,(opcode
<B4>,) , with a "fail" code, 0.
Note that regular "SHORT" 7 bit NMRA addresses are denoted by <loco-adr hi>=0. The Analog , Zero stretched, loco is selected when both <loco adr hi>=<loco adr lo>=0. <Loco adr lo> is always a 7 bit value. If <loco adr hi> is non-zero then the Master will generate NMRA type 14 bit or "LONG" address packets using all 14 bits from <loco adr hi> and <loco adr lo> with Loco adr Hi being the MOST significant address bits. Note that a DT200 Master does NOT process 14 bit adr requests and will consider the <loco adr hi> to always zero. You can check the <TRK> return bits to see if the Master is a DT200.
The throttle must then examine the SLOT READ DATA bytes to work out how to process the Master response. If the STATUS1 byte shows the SLOT to be COMMON, IDLE or NEW the throttle may change the SLOT to IN_USE by performing a NULL MOVE instruction ,(opcode <BA>,<slotX>,<slotX>,<chk> ) on this SLOT. This activation mechanism is used to guarantee proper SLOT usage interlocking in a multi-user asynchronous environment.
If the SLOT return information shows the Locomotive requested is IN_USE or UP-CONSISTED (i.e. the SL_CONUP, bit 6 of STATUS1 =1 ) the user should NOT use the SLOT. Any UP_CONSISTED locos must be UNLINKED before usage! Always process the result from the LINK and UNLINK commands, since the Master reserves the right to change the reply slot number and can reject the linking tasks under several circumstances. Verify the reply slot # and the Link UP/DN bits in STAT1 are as you expected.
The throttle will then be able to update Speed./Direction and Function information . Whenever SLOT information is changed in an active slot , the SLOT is flagged to be updated as the next DCC packet sent to the track. If the SLOT is part of linked CONSIST SLOTS the whole CONSIST chain is updated consecutively.
If a throttle is disconnected from the LocoNet®, upon reconnection (if the throttle retains the SLOT state from before disconnection) it will request the full status of the SLOT it was previously using. If the reported STATUS and Speed/Function data etc., from the master exactly matches the remembered SLOT state the throttle will continue using the SLOT. If the SLOT data does not match, the throttle will assume the SLOT was purged free by the system and will go through the setup "log on" procedure again.
With this procedure the throttle does not need to have a unique "ID number". SLOT addresses DO NOT imply they contain any particular LOCOMOTIVE address. The system can be mapped such that the SLOT address matches the LOCOMOTIVE address within, if the user directly Reads and Writes to SLOTs without using the Master to allocate Locomotive addresses
Active Locomotives (including Consist TOP) SLOTS may be released for assignment to BT2 throttles in
the "DISPATCH" mode. In this case a BT2 operating in its normal mode will request a DISPATCH SLOT
that has been prepared by a supervisor type device. This is included for Club type operations where
simpler throttles with limited capabilities are given to Engineers (Operators) by the Hostler or Dispatcher.
To DISPATCH PUT a slot , perform a SLOT MOVE to Slot 0. In this case the Destination Slot 0 is not copied to, but the source SLOT number is marked by the system as the DISPATCH slot. This is only a "one deep stack".
To DISPATCH GET, perform a SLOT MOVE from Slot 0 (no destination needed). If there is a DISPATCH marked slot in the system, a SLOT DATA READ ( <E7>,,,) with the SLOT information will be the response. If there is NO DISPATCH slot, the response will be a LONG ACK ( opc <B4>,,) with the Fail code,00.
Immediate codes may be sent to the Master by a device. These are converted to DCC packets and sent as
the next packet to the rails. They are not entered into any refresh stack. These are available in a system
based on the DCS100/"Chief".
Opcodes for access to an auxiliary Service mode Programming Track are included. These requests are not entered in the main DCC packet stream .
Note that several confusing expansions and opcode sequences have been stripped from this LocoNet® version. An experimenter who implements this protocol correctly should have no problems running on a LocoNet® that has other expanded features. Again, we recommend resisting the temptation to "optimise" or take shortcuts with this protocol since it will lead to guaranteed future problems with your hardware and software.
|OPC_IDLE||0x85||FORCE IDLE state, B'cast emerg. STOP||-||-|
|OPC_GPON||0x83||GLOBAL power ON request||-||-|
|OPC_GPOFF||0x82||GLOBAL power OFF req||-||-|
|OPC_BUSY||0x81||MASTER busy code, NUL||-||-|
|OPC_LOCO_ADR||0xBF||Request loco address, if not found master puts address in a free slot.||0||ADR||OPC_SL_RD_DATA|| OPC_LONG_ACK
No free slot available. ACK1=0
|OPC_SW_ACK||0xBD||Request switch with acknoledge function.||SW1||SW2||OPC_LONG_ACK, ACK1=0x7F||OPC_LONG_ACK, ACK1=0x00|
|OPC_SW_STATE||0xBC||Request state of switch.||SW1||SW2||OPC_LONG_ACK, ACK1=0x7F||OPC_LONG_ACK, ACK1=0x00|
|OPC_RQ_SL_DATA||0xBB||Request slot data/status block||SLOT||0||OPC_SL_RD_DATA|
|OPC_MOVE_SLOTS||0xBA||Move slot SRC to DST||SRC||DST||OPC_SL_RD_DATA|
|OPC_LINK_SLOTS||0xB9||Link slot ARG1 to slot ARG2||SL1||SL2||OPC_SL_RD_DATA|
|OPC_UNLINK_SLOTS||0xB8||Unlink slot ARG1 from slot ARG2||SL1||SL2||OPC_SL_RD_DATA|
|OPC_CONSIST_FUNC||0xB6||Set FUNC bits in a CONSIST uplink element||SLOT||DIRF|
|OPC_SLOT_STAT1||0xB5||Write slot stat1||SLOT||STAT1|
|OPC_INPUT_REP||0xB2||General sensor input codes||IN1||IN2|
|OPC_SW_REP||0xB1||Turnout sensor state report||SN1||SN2|
|OPC_SW_REQ||0xB0||Request switch function||SW1||SW2||OPC_LONG_ACK, LOPC=0x30, ACK1=0x00|
|OPC_LOCO_SND||0xA2||Set slot sound function||SLOT||SND|
|OPC_LOCO_DIRF||0xA1||Set slot direction, function 0-4 state||SLOT||DIRF|
|OPC_LOCO_SPD||0xA0||Set slot speed||SLOT||SPD|
|OPC_MULTI_SENSE||0xD0||power management and transponding||type||zone and section||addr||addr|
|OPC_UHLI_FUN||0xD4||Function 9-28 by Uhlenbrock||0x20||slot||function group||function|
|OPC_WR_SL_DATA||0xEF||Write slot data.||0x0E||SLOT#||STAT1||ADR||SPD||DIRF||TRK||SS2||ADR2||SND||ID1||ID2||OPC_LONG_ACK|
|OPC_WR_SL_DATA||0xEF||Write PT slot data.||0x0E||0x7C||PCMD||0||HOPSA||LOPSA||TRK||CVH||CVL||DATA7||0||0||OPC_LONG_ACK|
|OPC_WR_SL_DATA||0xEF||Write Fast Clock slot data.||0x0E||0x7B||CLK_RATE||FRAC_MINSL||FRAC_MINSH||256-MINS_60||TRK||256-HRS_24||DAYS||CLK_CNTR||ID1||ID2||OPC_LONG_ACK|
|OPC_SL_RD_DATA||0xE7||Slot data response.||0x0E||SLOT#||STAT1||ADR||SPD||DIRF||TRK||SS2||ADR2||SND||ID1||ID2||-|
|-||0xE6||Programming service mode aborted.||0x10/0x15|
|OPC_PEER_XFER||0xE5||Move 8 bytes peer to peer, SRC→DST.||0x10||SRC||DSTL||DSTH||PXCT1||D1||D2||D3||D4||PXCT2||D5||D6||D7||D8||-|
|OPC_LISSY_REP||0xE4||Lissy IR report||0x08||0x00||high unit, direction||low unit||high addr||low addr||-||-|
|OPC_WHEELCNT_REP||0xE4||Wheel counter report||0x08||0x40||high unit, direction||low unit||high count||low count||-||-|
|OPC_LISSY_REP||0xE4||RFID-5 report||0x0C||0x41||addr. high||addr. low||RFID-0||RFID-1||RFID-2||RFID-3||RFID-4||RFID-HI||-|
|OPC_LISSY_REP||0xE4||RFID-7 report||0x0E||0x41||addr. high||addr. low||RFID-0||RFID-1||RFID-2||RFID-3||RFID-4||RFID-5||RFID-6||RFID-HI||-|
|OPC_IMM_PACKET¹||0xED||Send n-byte packet immediate.||0x0B||0x7F||REPS||DH1||IM1||IM2||IM3||IM4||IM5|| OPC_LONG_ACK
ACK1=0x7F if not limited
ACK1=lim if limited
ACK1=0x00 If busy
The SLOT DATA bytes are, in order of TRANSMISSION for <E7> READ or <EF> WRITE
NOTE SLOT 0 <E7> read will return MASTER config information bytes .